URBANIZATION AS AN IMPORTANT DETERMINANT IN SPATIAL ORGANIZATION (CASE STUDY OF ORON)

URBANIZATION AS AN IMPORTANT DETERMINANT IN SPATIAL ORGANIZATION (CASE STUDY OF ORON)

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Abstract

The study is on urbanization as an important determinant in spatial organization. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Oron local government area of Akwa Ibom state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made directors, administrative staff, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the study

The term natural vegetation generally refers to the plant cover of an extensive part of the earth. It also refers to the different plant communities found on the surface of the earth. (Monkhouse 1970, Collinson 198). The part of the earth on which plant grow is known as the biosphere. The biosphere is also refers to as an ecosystem because there is an interrelationship between that plant and other environmental factors e.g. soil. The land biosphere may be subdivided into bios cycles, including the land bios cycle which is of relevance to this study since it carries the forest ecosystem. However, vegetation growth depends essentially on the types of soil and climatic factors of an area, for example rainfall, light and heat which are known to influence vegetation structure. If vegetation is allow to grow without human interference. It becomes a primeval forest (Church 1973). However, there is no primeval forest in Akwa Ibom State because of constant human interference for agriculture purposes, settlement and urban development and industrialization. The vegetation cover, except in some distant swamps and few sacred forests, has undergone serious modification by man. In essence, when to total demand for land in all categories exceeds supply forest land will be sacrificed tom that other needs can be met Natural vegetation is the plants and other flora that make up the plant life in the region, the natural vegetation determine the characteristic of the region

THE ROLE OF NATURAL VEGETATION

Vegetation or natural vegetation support critical functions in the biosphere, at all possible scales. First, vegetation regulates the flow of numerous biogeochemical cycles, most critically those of water, carbon, and nitrogen. It is also of great important in local and global energy balance. Such cycle are impotent not only fo9r global pattern of vegetation but also for those of climate.Second, vegetation strongly affects soil characteristics, including soil volume, chemistry and texture, which feed back to affect various vegetation characteristics, including productivity and structure.Third, vegetation serve as wildlife habitat and the energy source for the vast array of animal species on the planet and, ultimately to those that feed on these. Vegetation is also critically important to the world economy, particularly in the use of fossil fuel as an energy source, but also in the global production of food, wood fuel and other materialsPerhaps most importantly, and often overlooked, global vegetation including algal communities has been the primary source of oxygen in the atmosphere, enabling the aerobic metabolism system to evolve and persist. Vegetation is psychologically important to humans, who evolved in direct contact with and dependence on, vegetation, for food, shelter, and medicine. Vegetation provide shelter to animals and provide us with timber and it is a key component of an ecosystem and, as such is involved in the regulation of monitor changes in cover composition and structure due to natural or human influence.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In view of the fact that natural vegetation is obviously the determinant factors of the characteristic of any geographical region. Akwa Ibom State is in the rain forest zone but the vegetation has been greatly tempered with undergoing serious degradation due to peripheral utilization for agriculture, settlement purposes and urbanization. Urbanization, according to Berry (1973) is “a process of population concentration. It proceeds in two ways; the multiplication of the points of concentration and the increase in the size of individual concentrations Hawley (1978) St6ates was initialed and nurtured by three imperial agencies namely; British colonial administration, Christian missionary and European business enterprises. Succeeding indigenous administration later consolidated and expanded it. In Oron Local Government Area, the natural vegetation have seriously degrade with the face of urbanization and settlement due to population increase and poaching resulting in natural degradation and present of secondary forest thereby deviating this geographical from her glory or natural vegetation. The above mention have interest me to studying more about the influence of urbanization on the natural vegetation in Oron and recommended the possible solution to effect conservation

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are;

1.   To access the degree of urban-sprawl of various ages and reliability on vegetation index.

2.   To evaluate the reliability including floristic from the corresponding urban encroachment over ages.

3.   To ascertain the important of urbanization in spatial organization

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Based on the above research objectives and questions, the researcher formulated the following research hypotheses;

Ho: there is no important of urbanization in spatial organization

H1:there is important of urbanization in spatial organization

Ho:there is no degree of urban-sprawl of various ages and reliability on vegetation index.

H1: there is degree of urban-sprawl of various ages and reliability on vegetation index.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study of urbanization and it influence on natural vegetation in Oron Local Government Area was aim at understanding the extent to which the urbanization have influence natural vegetation or weather such vegetation have any way impedes urbanization or urban sprawl in Oron Local Government. However the study will bring to the fore knowledge, the type of natural vegetation and also to satisfy the inquisition present burning in the mind  of indigenes of the above locality as to weather, their vegetation characteristic enhance urbanization or impedes it. And some useful recommendation made that will balance the improvement the duo.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers urbanization as an important in spatial organization ( a case study oron). The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study       

b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities  

 1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

VALIDITY: As used in this research project, this implies the quality of it value ability or how genuine.

RELIABILITY: This implies it dependability and the quality of it content value.

(a) URBAN – SPRAWL: The extension of the city into country side particularly associated with improvement mass transport. Torrens (2006)

Argues that population growth is one of the most important engines of urban sprawl, and Irwin and Bockstach (2002).

VEGETATION INDEX: It is the way to describe the net result of canopy coverage, leaf area, and canopy architecture in a vegetated area. The number and size of leaves, and how they are arranged horizontally and vertically. Low value on the index means less vegetation (Earth observatory 2033). See liang et al (2007). It is common way to measure Earth’s vegetation from space.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study  


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