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.CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A bank is a financial institution set up purposely for safe-keeping of money, valuable goods and documents like wills and others. The existence of banks has been a big boost to business activities the world over. They help to oil the wheel of business activities by making money available which is the essential ingredient of business.
THE ORIGIN OF BANK
The English banking system of which Nigeria is practicing today originated from Britain through the activities of the goldsmith. Bank and money therefore have common origin and ancestor-goldsmith. It was not deliberately designed as a bank, but through the processes of trial and error, bank emerged. As the name indicates, the goldsmith deals with gold which is a very valuable and rare commodity. Because of the costly nature of gold, the goldsmith had a place called his strong-room in which gold, other valuable commodities and documents were kept for safe custody. With his strong-room, the goldsmith started receiving valuable commodities from people for safe keeping. Receipts were issued to those who deposited their valuables as an evidence, and they paid the goldsmith for his service. As time went on, people started using the receipts issued by the goldsmith for the exchange of other goods and services.
When the goldsmith discovered that some people who deposited valuables with him do not come for them in a short period, he started enticing other people in form of interest to deposit their gold and other valuables with him. He also started lending these forms of money out to other people on short term basis on unit interest rate. The exercise continued. It was modernized and named bank. This is exactly how the English banking system originated. The goldsmith in London therefore became the first bankers. This banking system was copied in Nigeria and other West African countries like Ghana, Gambia and Sierra-Leone when they were British colonies.
Marketing has become increasingly a vital ingredient for business success. And marketing profoundly affects our day-to-day lives. It is embedded in everything we do (Kotler and Keller, 2006: 3-4) Marketing practices are continually being refined and reformed in virtually all industries to increase the chances of success. Marketing is very important in an organization, that one could equate it with finance. While finance may be considered as the life wire of business, especially startup capital, marketing is the only thing needed so that the capital invested could be recouped and for the business to continue to exist.
In the first instance, there is market for such business, while market may be viewed as a point where exchanges take place, marketing is considered as a set of human activities directed at facilitating and consummating mutually satisfying exchange relationship between the marketer and the market (Linus and Vivienne, (1997p.2). This definition justifies the dependence of business on marketing.
Marketing being the bedrock for business survival is commonly believed to have progressed through five distinct phases of evolution since the beginning of the time. According to White (2010), the simple trade era, the production era, the sales era, the marketing department era, and marketing company era. The modern marketing have been argued to have evolved in the mid 1800s in advanced countries like the United States of America and the early 1900s in developing countries such as Nigeria. Linus and Vivienne (1997 p.2) argued that a form of exchange relationship within the society had, however, been in relationship before the advent of modern marketing. This exchange relationship started when individuals were able to produce given items more than they could consume.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Union Bank of Nigeria was established in 1917 as a colonial Bank with its branch in Lagos, 1925, Barclays Bank acquired colonial bank, which resulted in the change of the Bank’s name to Barclays Bank (Dominion colonial and overseas).
Following the enactment of the companies Act 1968 and the legal requirements for all foreign subsidiaries to be incorporated locally, Barclays bank (DOC) in 1969 was incorporated as Barclays Bank of Nigeria Limited.
The ownership structure of Barclays bank remains unchanged until 1971 when 8.33% of the bank’s shares were offered to Nigerians. In the same year, the bank was listed on the Nigeria stock exchange. As a result of the Nigeria enterprises promotion Act of 1972, the federal government of Nigeria acquired 51-67% of the bank’s share, which left Barclays bank Plc, London with only 40%. By enactment of the 1972 and 1977 Nigeria international limited disposed its share holding to Nigerians in 1979.
The ownership structure and in compliance with the Companies and Allied Matter Act of 1990, it assumed the name Union Bank of Nigeria Plc. In line with the central bank of Nigeria banking consolidation policy, Union Bank of Nigeria Plc acquired three other banks namely Universal Trust Bank, Broad Bank Ltd and Union Merchant Bank Ltd. They now operate under the brand name of Union Bank of Nigeria plc.
Union bank has the largest shareholder’s funds of N100. 500billion and operates through 378 network of branches that are well spread across the country all of which are on line, real Union Bank groups operates an interlocking organizational structure whereby some board members of Union Bank of Nigeria act as external directors in the subsidiary companies while the group managing director chief executive officers of the bank double as the chairman of all the subsidiary companies except Union registrants limited and union capital market limited.
Today, the bank is a leading regional bank in sub-sahara Africa in terms of its diverse investment across the globe. The bank has continued to grow; a glance at the financial summary reveals the solidity of the bank. As at March 2006, the bank’s gross earnings for the group billion, total assets was N 667.766 billion and shareholder’s fund was N 100.500 billion
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There are a lot problems associated with the marketing of service though there is no universally applicable method and rather it must be tailored to people satisfaction. Often times marketing managers face the problem of not having vital information for good decision making.
Most service institutions embark on promotion without a focus on the promotional techniques, if a bank sees promotion as just a means of reaching the customers it may be difficult for a researcher to draw out basic fact about promotional activities in such bank. Marketing of services is one of the challenges facing management, most marketing manager or supervisor no longer question the outcome of their effort as their success is determined by public. Inability of many customers to get loans and advances on demand while relatives of bank managers and accountants get multiple loans for frivolous motives without adequate collateral. Research shows that unethical marketing behaviour impacts consumer’s behaviour in the market place. Nigerian banks are mostly fond of this behaviour which resulted to poor handling of customer complaints. Lack of courtesy, failed promises, the pain and stress which customers of certain banks are made to go through in a single transaction can be highly frustrating and devastating.
The issue of money transfer in banks is one major problem that customers of certain banks have been made to experience. In most cases, customers hardly receive the payment of the money transferred to his account immediately. Thus, marketing practice in Nigeria banks is poor, especially in areas of customer motivation and market share.
Academiers have written severally and extensively in the banks journal and periodic for adoption and were not adhered to. Customer themselves have protested through physical complaints and suggestion/complaint box provided by banks themselves.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objectives of the study are to examine how selected banks have used marketing as a tool of competition in the changing business environment in Nigeria.
Other specific objectives are as follows:-
· To examine the extent of marketing practices in the Nigeria banking sector.
· To determine the role of marketing in the Nigeria banking sector.
· To bring to light the problems faced by the banking sector in rendering services in Nigeria.
· To educate and show organization, the various ways to handle their customers.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
The research hypothesis is to gear the question towards the authenticity of the study work. The null hypothesis (Ho) and the alternative hypothesis (Hi) are to be used in testing the hypothesis.
Ho: Banks do not ascertain the needs of customers before rendering such services in order to satisfy them.
Hi: Banks ascertain the needs of customers before rendering such services in order to satisfy them
Ho: Marketing is not eminent and essential for the achievement of bank’s objectives
Hi: Marketing is eminent and essential for the achievement of bank’s objectives
Ho: Effective service rendering by banks in Nigeria is not altered by the problems faced by the banking sector.
Hi: Effective service rendering by banks in Nigeria is altered by the problems faced by the banking sector.
Ho: Ignorance of good customer relations will not affect the performances of the organization in the banking sector.
Hi: Ignorance of good customer relations will affect the performances of the organization in the banking sector.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The relevant of this study is to provide information about the banking sector. The outcome of the study will guide the bank in providing services that are tailored to the needs of the customers.
Financial institution and other organizations will also use the result of the study to know economic area that will be of benefit to the people and the institution.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers the relevance of marketing in banking industry in Union Bank of Nigeria plc Kogi state.
The study is restricted to Union Bank Plc Idah branch, Kogi State and as a result of this a lot of problems were encountered and the degree of seriousness varies from one research work to another. These limitations are follows:-
i. The attitudes of respondents to give accurate information to this research work
ii. Finances are one of the constraints and as a result, it does not allow the research to undergo a parallel study.
iii. Inadequate secondary data to enhance speedy actualization of research work. Every research is built on sound and critical platform, with adequacies in the school libraries. It is difficult to get the necessary texts and journals needed for the study.
All the above limitations imposed a lot of constraints on research but not withstanding, the researcher felt a sense of satisfaction that a recommendable work was done at least and therefore fulfilled.
1.7 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Marketing: This is the process whereby individual and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others (Kotler and Armstrong 2004:5).
Services: A service is any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of a physical product (Kotler 19960.
Market: A market is the set of all individual and organization, who are actual or potential buyers of a product or service. The seller side is called the industry or competition; the marketers want to know several things about the market such as its size purchasing power needed and preferences. (Achumba, 1996).
Marketing mix: Marketing mix is one of the key concept in modern marketing. It is the mixture of controllable marketing verifiable that the firm uses to pursue the sought length of sales in the target market. McCarthy classified various marketing activities into marketing mix tools of four kinds which he called the 4ps of marketing; Product, price, place, and promotion.
Clearly, these 4ps are not the whole story any more. We up date them to reflect the holistic marketing condition, we arrive at the more representative set that uncompounded modern marketing realities. Which are; people, process, programmes and performance (Kotler 2012).
i. Product: The most basic market variable is product which stands for the tangible offer to the market, including the product features packaging, branding, servicing, policies, sizes, quality, e.t.c.
ii. Price: This is the amount of money that customers have to pay for the product. It includes price discounts allowances, payment period, credit terms.
iii. Place: This stands for the various activities the company undertakes to make the product accessible and available to target customers. This includes decisions on channels, locations, inventory, and transport.
iv. Promotion: This stands for various activities the company undertakes to communicate its product’s and to persuade target customers to buy them. This includes sales promotion, advertising, sales force, public relation.
v. Processes: This reflect all the creativity, discipline and structure brought to marketing management.
vi. Programs: This reflects all the firm’s consumer directed activities. It encompasses the old 4ps as well as a range of other marketing activities that might not as neatly into the old view of marketing.
vii. People: This reflects internal marketing and the fact that employees are critical to marketing success. Marketing will only be as good as the people inside the organization.
viii. Performance: We define performance as in holistic marketing, to the range of possible outcomes measures that have financial and non financial implications (profitability as well as brand and customer equity).
Bank: Bank is a financial institution that performs the function of collecting deposit on demand wherever it requires by the owners.
Loan: It is a stated sum of money which a bank lends its customers at agreed interest rate. (McCarthy 2008:95).
Overdraft: This is an advance given to a customer by allowing the borrower to over draw his current account to a certain limit as agreed with the bank.
Current Account: Current account is a type of account where a customer can keep money, and he can withdraw it on demand, transfer the money to another person by means of a cheque any other appropriate instrument interest is charged on this account.
Fixed deposit account: money kept in fixed deposit account can only be withdrawn at an agreed date. If it is withdrawn before the date, the depositor forfeits part of the interest.
Saving account: This means that this account is suitable for those who can forego their right to withdraw or transfer money on demand. They do not usually have chequebook. This account earns interest.
Industry: This is the collection of firms that produce similar product which can compete with one another.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF WORK
This research work is written in five chapters and each of the chapters is outlined below:
Chapter one includes introduction, background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, statement of hypothesis, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study organization of work, definitions of key terms and end of chapter references.
Chapter two includes the following literature review, introduction, features of banks in Nigeria, functions of banks (bank services), problems of marketing Banking services in Nigeria, functions of marketing in Banking sector, the importance of marketing Banking services in Nigeria, and end of chapter references.
Chapter three includes the following:
Research methodology, introduction, research design, data collection techniques, sources of data, population of the study.
Chapter four includes the following:-
Presentation and interpretation of result, introduction, data presentation and analysis.
Chapter five includes the following:-
Summary of findings, conclusion, recommendation, bibliography and appendix.
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