THE IMPACTS OF MANGO BUSINESS IN OFF-SEASON HOUSEHOLD INCOME OF FARMERS IN KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE.

THE IMPACTS OF MANGO BUSINESS IN OFF-SEASON HOUSEHOLD INCOME OF FARMERS IN KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE.

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ABSTRACT

The research work was on an investigation into the utilization and maintenance of building workshop and workshop facilities in technical colleges of Kaduna State. Questionnaire was formulated and data were analyzed using simple percentage means score and standard deviation. The questionnaire was administered to student and workshop instructors from Government Technical College Malali, and Government Technical College Kajuru. Base on the result of the study it was revealed that the teachers and workshop instructors give proper attention to student when carrying out operation in the workshop. It also revealed that teachers, workshop instructors, student observe rules and regulations during practical work but government shows less concern toward procurement and regulations during practical work but government shows less concern toward procurement and maintenance of technical school workshop facilities in Kaduna State.


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study 

It is generally believed that any nation, Community or society that has no adequate means for occupational training of its citizens in modern technology such as nation cannot develop comparatively with other nations. Therefore, for a nation to develop economically there must be a sound technological knowhow. This of course can be achieved if the learners are equipped with a sound workshop to work and to practice Muhammad (2006).

Federal Republic of Nigeria (National Policy on education 2004) defined technical and vocational education as the educational process which involves an addition to general education, the study of technologies related sciences and acquisition of political skills and knowledge relating to occupation in various sectors of the economic and social life technical site for technological development and self reliant Oranu (2000) Technical and vocational Education prepares learners to develop profitable, social habit require by the society.

Technical and vocational Education, according to Danko (2006) is and Education programme that prepares students mainly for occupations in such as agriculture, business education, home economic, painting, decorating and others, organize to secure confidence and experience by the individual students. It is also designed to develop skills, abilities, understanding, attitudes, work habit and appreciation encompassing knowledge and information needed by worker to enter to make progress in employment on a useful and productive basis. Technical Education on the other hand is design to prepare the learner to enter an understanding of the laws of science and technology as applied to modern design and production. It also stresses the engineering aspect of vocational Education, such as electric Electronic, mechanical and automobile trade. It involve understanding and practical application of the basic principle or mathematics and science. Okitan et al (1999) Said that the tasis of technical education has to do with the transmission ideals, skills, values of work and environment and individual can do with his or her life.

In the year (2010) national policy on Education required technical and vocational educational as that aspect of education that leads to the acquisition of practical and applied to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. In this sense, it forms a practical segment of education that involves skills acquisition. However, vocational Education can also be seen as that education designed to prepare individuals for gainful employment as semi skilled or skilled worker or technicians or sub-professional in recognized occupations and in view and in emerging occupations to prepare individual for enrolment in advanced technical education programme.

Technical and vocational education can explain in terms of training designed to advanced an individual’s proficiency in relation to his or her present or future occupation, training or retraining which is given in schools or classes under public supervision and control, provision of systematic training experiences which are designed to fit individuals in recognized occupations. Thus vocational education is that part of total education system, which offers courses leading to the acquisition of specific skills to enable one to perform certain job. Sometimes, vocational education offer retraining to upgrade workers already in employment.

It is directed towards thee preparation for occupational life since its recipients are equipped to face the challenges of the world of work. Vocational education preparation can be equated to the acquisition of the training experience that culminates in an industrial experience within a work oriented society. It entails the transmission of knowledge and acquisition of skills that are related to various occupations. It also entails the enrichment of the capabilities that influence the effective, psychomotor or cognitive domans of individual in readiness for entry into the world of work in order to satisfy their intrinsic and extrinsic values, work goals and aspiration such that local and national needs would met. Recently technical and vocational education is used as a comprehensive term for retraining in those aspects of the educational process involving in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition in various sectors of economics and social life.

However, history has revealed that whatever democracy has been on the decline, if has been so because of the individuals comprising it ceased gaining participation in the direction, responsibilities and benefit of the society. Hence technical and vocational education became necessary.

In Nigeria, people go to school with a belief that education will enable them participate in the society. But, from the look of things full participation in Nigeria society requires technical and vocational education at all levels of our educational system, which will recognize the different skills and abilities and give an equal opportunity to all children to prepare for work.

Technical and vocational education courses attracts students who left schools and are in able to obtain employment, for such students, it offers them the opportunity the school system has to give them for training in technical fields. Furthermore, the mission of technical and vocational education is not only to provide definite training to science, mathematics history, geography etc, which are useful to the society waste of human resources so far, Nigeria has given very little attention to conservation of human and it is obvious that the waste of labour by improper employment can be largely avoided through technical and vocational training, such training is the most protect remedy for unemployment.

Furthermore, technical and vocational education is needed in every aspect of our national life. The problem of Juneile delinquency and crime can be rescued if the youths are given the necessary vocation training that will keep them busy in developed world, technical and vocational education is regarded as a wise investment. It is believed by many people that through technical and vocational education and training, boys and girls as well as adult will be trained to acquire skills that will enable them secure employments, which will be beneficial to them serves and the society.

The absence of opportunity for world is one of the courses of much of the social and industrial unrest. The inability of our educational system to provide the youths with the demands of industries has led to the turning out of restless and disconnected generation of youth. Moreover, wage-earning capacity.

For the thoroughly trained worker, wages increase from year to year age, while the average sp is brought about by meaningful vocational and technical education is needed to meet the increasing demand for train woman, with the rapid economic development, there has been a constant and increased demand on industries for better goods and services. To achieve all this, adequate founding becomes a prerequisite for success in vocational and technical education, which capital intensive fund is needed to procure machines and equipment for any meaningful teaching and learning.

The students have to work in laboratories and workshops that are well equipped with recent machine and  tools like the once they will encounter in industries as such the government should increase the budgetary allocation to vocational and technical education, however government cannot do it alone, cooperate organizations, parent and alumni associations should assist in providing some of these equipments needed in training of vocational and technical students for the development of skills and acquisition.

However effort should also be made by the government to see that there is full implementation of the policies as they concern vocational and technical education. They should make this possible by promulgating decree or sanctioning each state that fails to adopt or implement the policy fully.

Government should provide more employment opportunities to graduate of vocational and technical teachers education they should also offer scholarship in this area. There is needed to change the vocational and technical teachers economic statues so as to increase the public awareness of the importance of vocational and technical teachers education incentives should be given to the vocational and technical teachers to discourage them from drifting to industries. Finally government should increase the number vocational and technical teachers in post primary institution to enhance effective pre-vocational program and prepare the student very for vocational educational. Government should also conduct in services training for the vocational and technical teachers regularly in order to upgrade their quality. The researcher experience should therefore aim at promoting the leaner capacity to reason and understanding the changes in the scientific and the technological advancement Osisioma (2009). The need for vocational and technical education depends largely to produce the right calibre of skills manpower for industries. The researchers with sound technological teachers who are competent for the job.

Therefore, the need for vocational and technical education institution to adequately equipped with appropriate workshop facilities and equipment for effective skills acquisition. This will go along in helping the secondary and post secondary students if technical colleges to be become self employed.

Statement of the Problem

With the development of modern technology, several problems have been identified in the area of effective utilization and maintenance of building workshop. Today most technical colleges are facing problems of improper maintenance and utilization of workshop facilities and equipment for effecting teaching and learning process. The researcher experience that, some technical colleges have no choice than to tech required skills on the chalkboard instead of teaching the skill practically Fafunma (2004) argued that, one major set-back in teaching of technical subject in many technical colleges is the lack of workshop facilities and equipment of this workshop may be damaged beyond repairs of many constitute a hazardous environment for practical teaching and learning process from the inception of 6,3,3,4 system of education by Babangida’s regime 1986, government imported a lot of workshop facilities and equipment to enhance skills acquisition, yet the problem of improper maintenance culture still persist. As a result of the researcher intend to investigate into the poor performance of students at NABTEB examination as a result of poor maintenance culture and improper utilization of facilities.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study of this research work is to determine the problem of improper maintenance and utilization of building workshop facilities and equipment in technical colleges in zone 2 Kaduna State.

The study will specifically determine:

Ø    The attitude of teachers and workshops instructors towards maintenance and utilization of building workshops facilities in technical colleges in zone two Kaduna State.

Ø    The extent of student involvement in the maintenance and utilization of building workshop facilities in technical colleges in zone two Kaduna State.

Ø    The extent to which the school authority involved in the maintenance and utilization of building workshop in technical colleges in zone two Kaduna State.

Ø    Strategies to be adopted to improve maintenance and utilization of building workshop facilities and equipment in technical colleges in zone two Kaduna State.

Significance of the Study

The finding of the study will be of great significance or importance to students. It will help the students to improve on the maintenance and utilization of building workshop facilities and equipment in the teaching and learning situation.

The teacher and workshop facilities instructors will also benefit by adopting the procedures to be followed on hw to utilize and maintain facilities and equipment toward  the achievement of pre-determine goals and objectives.

Government will also benefit from the study by adopting the identified strategies to bring changes in the workshop on how to utilize facilities and maintenance of all the available tools and equipment toward meeting all the objectives of establishing technical colleges.

Research Questions

The following research question will guide study:

1.         What are the habit of teachers and workshop instructors toward maintenance and utilization of building workshop facilities and equipment in technical colleges in zone two Kaduna State.

2.         To what extent are students involved in the maintenance and utilization of building workshop facilities and equipment in technical colleges in zone two Kaduna State?

3.         To what extent is the school authority involved in the maintenance and utilization of building workshop facilities in technical college of zone two in Kaduna state?

4.         What are the strategies to be adopted to improve maintenance and utilization of building workshop facilities and equipment in technical colleges in zone two Kaduna State?

Scope of the Study

This study is delimited to assessing the rate of utilization and maintenance of workshop facilities with particular fours on teachers habit students and school authority’s involvement in technical colleges of zone two senatorial district of Kaduna State. And strategies to improve the utilization and maintenance practices in technical colleges of zone two senatorial district of Kaduna State. The study is also limited to technical colleges teachers, administrators and students in the school.






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