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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The Nigeria rural areas consist of diversity of people with distinct cultures sustained by diverse economy. Infact, the structure of the rural areas in Nigeria and their cultures are characterized both by continuity and changes. The societal values and norms control of the rural dwellers to a large extent have destabilizing effect on entrepreneurship development processes. The development of the rural economy depends largely on the availability of entrepreneurial competence. Entrepreneurship is the acceptance of risk and managing a new business to improve living standard which is aimed at making profit.
According to Anuku (2004) entrepreneurship is the ability of a person to take financial risk and combine such resources such as Land, Capital, Time, Technology as well as research and development to satisfy need and earn profit.
The entrepreneurship is a self-disciplined, action oriented for business ideas, and highly energetic to tolerate uncertainty. It’s ability to be innovative, result from personal attribute exposure and experience. The entrepreneurs provide a business plan, the resources, the procedure and method on how to actualize the purpose of the venture.
It is generally observed that over the years entrepreneurs are reluctant towards developing the rural areas due to the fact that there are inadequate social amenities, lack of business ideas, lack of technological- know-how etc. Those who wish to go into business in the rural areas are not financially buoyant which has necessitated the establishment of micro and small business. Entrepreneurs with highly managerial skills are needed in the rural area to educate the people and control other factors of production in order for them to succeed.
Development as defined by Todaro simply means a “multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitude and national institution as well as accelerating economic growth, reduction of inequality and eradication of absolute poverty.”
Erhurun (2006) “Development could be seen as a quantitative and qualitative improvement in the former way of doing things that positively affect a greater percentage of the populace.
Development in the rural areas is very vital because it redesigned the aspect of the culture that brings obstacle to entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship development is to educate and create awareness among citizens which gives room for proper planning, good business ideas and communication, utilization of infrastructural facilities and technological advancement of the rural areas. Entrepreneurship has contribute significantly to economic activities, provide opportunity for investors, provision of innovative ideas, master planners and project manager. Also, access to cheap and reliable capital should be promoted to boost entrepreneurship activities in the rural areas. The totality of this assertion is that entrepreneurship developments occupy a sensitive or core position of any rural areas, that wants improvement in the quality of life of the rural dwellers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
All nations of the world are saddled with a lot of problem confronting entrepreneurship development in the rural area and the first thing that comes to mind is how to solve these problems so that countries can aspire to attain high level of economic development by way of increase in capital formation, high productivity, man power development, development of infrastructures, high level of advancement in technology, constant power supply just to mention but a few.
In Nigeria especially it is believe that entrepreneurship development in the rural areas suffers from high illiteracy level, inadequate capital and unskilled man power which is why the entrepreneurs in the rural areas engages in small scale business.
Besides bank are not ready to lend without some form of securities or collateral. A nation is said to be poor or rich, developed or under developed due to the success and failure of its entrepreneurs.
However, the specific problems of the study include the following:
1) Entrepreneurship, really an instrument for rural areas economic development?
2) Do entrepreneurs bring positive changes to a rural area?
3) What are those factors or element that causes failure to economic development?
4) Can entrepreneurship helped the rural areas to attain the desired level of economic development? The study will attempt to find answer to these problems and others that will arise in the course of this research.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are as follow:
§ To fluid out the contributions of entrepreneur to rural areas.
§ To examine the success and failures of entrepreneur in rural areas.
§ To find the role of entrepreneurs with problems and challenges facing them.
§ To proffer possible suggestion and solution.
1.4 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is relevant to the researcher as it will enable the researcher to know how entrepreneurship development has impacted on the life of people living in the rural areas and to also examine the success and failure of entrepreneurship in the rural area. Findings from this research will also be beneficial to the following:
1) Manager: This study will help manager of small scale enterprise to employed necessary technique to tackle some of the short comings so as to improve on their managerial skill.
2) This study will enable future researcher and government to concentrate and focus their energy towards developing the rural areas so as to open up economic activities for entrepreneurs.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study will examine the roles, problems and challenges facing entrepreneurship in the rural areas. Especially as they affect some enterprises in Isoko North L.G.A of Delta State. The enterprises that were study are:
Ø Gwake Pure Water Industry
Ø Kome Table Water Industry Produced by: Ojefes Services Hotel Rendervous Road, Uruto quarters, Ozoro.
Ø Benjege Block Industry No. 29 Ughelli Express way, Ozoro.
Ø Onakome Funiture, No. 16 Urude Road, Ozoro.
Ø JAH High Quality Bread Otor-Owhe/Ughelli Express Road, Behind United Believers Church, Otor-Owhe.
Ø Bendel Supermarket Shopping Centre, Day & Night Services No. 2 Hospital Road, Ozoro.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is carried out to provide an insight into the growth and structure of entrepreneurship as an ingredient of economic development in rural areas. This work is especially aimed at carrying out an analysis of entrepreneurship; its meaning, objectives, its strength for achieving its objectives.
The study will enable future researchers to have ideas about what entrepreneurship means, thereby developing and improving on it in order to make meaningful contributions that will alleviate the problems of entrepreneurship in rural areas.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTION
1) Does entrepreneurship contribute to an economy development?
2) Does infrastructure development affect business in rural areas?
3) Is employee motivation important?
4) Is finance important to entrepreneur?
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
To have a thorough study of this research, the study was limited to entrepreneurship development in rural areas of Isoko North L.G.A of Delta State.
However, it could have been better for the researcher to expand the scope of this study, so as to cover wider range but due to financial constraint, time factors, and distribution and collection of questionnaire limit the scope hence, research was conducted within Isoko North L.G.A.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Below are the lists terms in the study defined as follows:
Entrepreneurship: The ability to take financial risk, start and manage a business for profit.
Development: This involved the qualitative and quantitative improvement from a lower standard to a better one. Rural Area: This is the part of a country where there is no meaningful development in terms of road, electricity, communication, pipe-borne water etc.
Innovation: This involved introducing new ideas and techniques for progress in business activities.
Economy: The act of controlling and managing money, resources, in order to avoid waste.
Capital: The money used to start up a business by the entrepreneur.
Profit: This is the money realized or gained in the business or the difference between income and expenditure.
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