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1.1 Background of the Study
Manufacturing simply refers to the changing or transformation of raw material to ﬁnished product in the factory. In Nigeria manufacturing as modern activity is relatively resent in the history of its economic development. Previously, what was practice in the country was the craft industry (Oguntoyimbo, 1978). Among the product of the craft industry that then featured in local and inter-regional trade were artifacts of woods, brass and bronze, leather, hand woven textiles and bags, iron working from charcoal forges, and ﬁre burnt pottery from local clay.
According to Oguntoyimbo, (1978), the craft industry of Nigeria has experienced considerable collapse in the face of the superior competition of other economic activities, particularly factory and service industries.
Industry and industrialization among other factors can be seen as a vital means of boosting the economic development of an area. It is means of measuring development attainment of an area. This explains why the developing countries pursue the goal of industrialization with keen determination. This is to achieve goal like revenue generation by government, provision of job opportunities to people living in the industrial regions and to also provide social infrastructure to the area close to the industries. The industrial sector in Kaduna is an energy consuming sector that consist all facilities and equipment used for producing, processes or assembling goods. The industrial sector encompasses the following types of activities like manufacturing, agriculture ﬁshing, hunting and so on.
This sector is undergoing major restructuring in production, marketing and management practices, the outcome of which may have serious implication for the survival of the industry itself and livelihood of those who work in it. Like many developing countries that attempt to industrialize in the l960’s and l970’s, industrialization has been heavily import — dependent and largely protected by an overvalued currency, tariff barriers and in some cases, state subsidies. Thus even before the onset of the current economic crisis, the industrial sector suffered from very serious structural imbalances. These imbalances are manifested in the linkages between the various sub sectors of industry, particularly the consumer intermediate and capital goods industries, with the bulk of manufacturing capacity concentrated in the consumer goods sector. The intermediate goods sector is relatively underdeveloped and the capital goods sector almost nonexistent factories depend for their full operation on the importation of essential raw materials, spare parts and machinery (Terribo et al, 1977).
Schatzl (1973), further stressed the factors attributed for industrial development and are, the availability of abundant natural resources and size of the domestic market. He also added that the geographical diversity of the raw materials coupled with extensive man power have growth promoting effect of the economic sector of Nigeria, of which Kaduna was included. This industrialization process, however, was accentuated by competition of foreign enterprise for Nigerians market and accelerated by the industrial policy of the government.
1.2 Research Problem
It is a clear fact that industrial sector not only in Kaduna but the whole nation is facing problems of industrial crises. Some of the problems encountered are lack of modern technologies and machineries, markets and power supply which is the main problem that led to the collapse of the industrial sector in the country. People within the region of urban Kaduna face serious problem in adapting to the collapse of these industry, many people in urban Kaduna lose their jobs as a result of the industrial crises which gave rise to high poverty rate and criminal activities within the area. Different researches have been conducted on the nature, classiﬁcation, problem and prospects of industries. The gap identify Will be examine and explain in the metropolitan area. This research intends to examine and explain why people adjust due to collapse of the industries in Urban Kaduna.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The aim of the research is to examine people’s coping strategy to the collapse of industrial sector in urban Kaduna.
l. To identify peoples venture endeavour after the industrial collapse.
2. To identify earnings of the venture.
3. To compare their past and present earning.
1.4 Justification of the Study
Industrial area of Kaduna State has in recent years’ experience development of economic activities. It has also been noticed that this development could be as a result of several factors, and one of which is the industry.
Hence, industrial area of Kaduna State serves as a good reference point for a research of this nature, which intends to assess people’s coping strategies to the collapse of industrial sector in urban Kaduna.
1.5 Scope and Significance of Study
The industries in Urban Kaduna which is the study area is situated along Kakuri Road, ASD Road, Monday Market Road etc. A research into people’s coping strategies to the collapse of industry in urban Kaduna is very important because of the contribution of large size of these industries to socio-economic development of Kaduna. This research is important as it is based on major industries in Kaduna.
This study, if well studied will provide solution to the collapse of industries in urban Kaduna, particularly issues related to job opportunities, high level of development within the region and reduction of criminal activities in Kaduna, and the country at large.
1.6 The Study Area
Kaduna metropolis is centrally located in northern Nigeria and is presently the capital city of Kaduna state. Kaduna state is grouped amongst the northwestern state in the present political dispensation, and shares common borders with Zamfara, Katsina, Niger, Kano, Bauchi and Plateau State. Kaduna city is located between latitude l0°36’N and longitude 7°28’E. The state is divided into twenty-three (23) local government and Kaduna south local government forming the metropolis.
1.6.2 Physical Settings
1.6.3 Geology and Relief
Kaduna metropolis is on a gentle undulating plain with a land ranging from 450 to 650 meters above sea level (Taka 1998). The some part of the city, there are outcrops of land resistant granite rocks that have been exposed to agent of erosion through ages. The erosive resulted to outcrops rocks forming inselberg and large rocky land. Kaduna state is endowed with minerals deposit such as clay, quarry, amethyst, tin, ore, graphitic, gemstone, e t c.
The climate of Kaduna metropolis is the same as obtained in the whole of Kaduna State. There are two marked seasons in the state. The dry windy season which last from November to march (5 month). The cold dry Harmattan wind blows from the Northeast during this period. This stops with the arrival of the ﬁrst rain in late April. The rainy season lasts from April to October (a period of about 7 moths), with the peak in July and August with average annual rainfall of about lOl6mm per annum.
Temperatures are high throughout the year with the highest in March and April (about 38.6c). The lowest temperature is in January (about 2O.2c) relative humidity in the dry season is below 10% in the afternoon and 30%at dawn. During the raining season, the relative humidity can be over 70% in midday and 95°/oat dawn.
1.6.5 Vegetation and Soil
Kaduna metropolis falls within the guinea savannah region of Nigeria with tall grasses, scattered trees and gallery forests along river courses (Ereghetse, l999). Although the ideal natural vegetation is grass with tall scattered trees, the natural vegetation has been altered by man due to his intense activities in order to earn a living. The dominate soil type is ferruginous soil, soil, except in riverine or Fadama area where hydromorphic soil exists.
Population distribution of Kaduna metropolis has undergone tremendous growth rare over the years. Kaduna town grew from 10,000 inhabitants in 1931 to a population of about 60,000 in 1952, 149,000 in 1963, 230,750 in 1973 and 337, 639 in l991(Ereghetse, 1990). The 2006 census gave the ﬁgure as 3.1 million (NPC, 2006).
1.6.7 Economic Activities
The economic activities in Kaduna metropolis reﬂect the commercial, service, administrative, industrial, transport and professional needs of the state. The metropolis is endows with heavy industries which have grown rapidly, except for the textile industries that have stopped operation in the past years, such as the Arewa textiles, Kaduna textiles etc. other industries like the Peugeot automobile assembly plant (PAN), Defence industry cooperation of Nigeria (DICON), breweries, the Nigerian national petroleum cooperation (NNPC) etc which are all concentrated south of the metropolis (Wambai, 2009).
Furthermore, the metropolis have a number of commercial activities such as banking and insurance, chamber, hospitals, printing industry, hair dressing and barbing saloon, shopping malls and complex, ﬁlling stations, recreational centers such as hotels and sport complex etc.
1.6.8 Transport and Communication Networks
Kaduna town is served with a trunk “a” federal well surfaces road that stretches from the northern part of the metropolis to its southern part. This road radiate from Kaduna city in ﬁve cardinal directions westwards to Tegina, northward to Kano, eastward to Jos and southwards to the federal capital (PCT) Apart from motor roads, railways coverage on Kaduna city, from Lagos in the southwest and Port Harcourt in the southwest; and extends to Zaria which is another rail way nodal settlement with railway lines branching to Kaura Namoda in Zamfara state and Kano. Recently, development in air travel within Nigeria has linked the state to every winner of the country. Kaduna city now has a standard international airport. This transportation network favours the movement of goods, raw materials, and services.
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