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1.1 Background of the study
Leadership is exercised virtually in every sphere of life including business, public service, religion institution, military, educational institutions and even private organizations. Leadership is an important aspect of management. Although so many people see leadership as management. But in reality, these terms are different, leadership concern people, that is, the aspect of getting a job done by inspiring, motivating, directing and gaining commitment of people to organization goals, management is a broad concept that involves planning, staffing, coordinating and controlling. Zaleznick (1977) acknowledged the difference between leaders and managers; he believes managers focus on demands and constraints of the moment rather than more for reaching matters. Unlike leaders, managers must deal with internal daily production concerns. Organization needs both management and leadership to provide workers and others resources favorable environment that yields continuous improvements and customer satisfaction. Literally, leadership means getting things done through other people, it is a means or method to achieve two ends that is, operating and improving. A study of a great leader has shown enormous diversity in their style of leadership, personality character and style leads me to believe that leadership is an art and not a science. However, leadership is required in all works of life. The success in leading a group is contingent upon both leader ability to held power effectively and the existence of an opportunistic situation.
In the words of Koontz et all (2005) leadership is an art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the attainment of groups goals. This concept can be enlarged to include the source of influence that are built into position in an organizational hierarchy. Leadership is very essential in organization because achievements and results occur vis a vis the tracts being projected by leader. Leadership include the ultimate source of power but has the positive ability in persuading other individual and to be innovative in decision making. Decision making is found to generate conflicts in whatever they are doing to achieve organization goals. In the light, the notions of leadership act are these which help a given organization in meeting those stated objectives (zarelas 1960). This study aim is to look at the leadership style, the organization should adopt to attain better performance. The work will also try to examine the philosophy of leadership and its functional relationship with workers performance. Therefore, to discover more means of finding a lasting solution to the numerous problems facing leadership style on workers performance. The increasing force of competition have awakened the minds of organizational management to develop and acquire new technique and mechanism to increase the level of organizational efficiency and effectiveness. This task requires resources of the organization involved in production namely- money, material and labour which need to be confirmed appropriately for effective performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Leadership style has become a very crucial area of management. In fact, it has attracted the attention of many management scientists who have actually delved into the difficult tasks of writing about the subject in the management literature. improper leadership qualities within the organization have a negative impact on the subordinates as well as the achievement of the organizational objectives. In an organization an important management problem is how to decide or choose the type of leadership styles which managers will use effectively to motivate, create and increase performance of the organization. “Leadership” to date in many organizations are vindictive in relating and dealing with their subordinates. The implication of this is the establishment of sit-tight measures, however, since all organized efforts are geared towards the accomplishment of pre-determined goals, the primary of which objective is not challenged it should be recognized that subordinates have need and objectives that are special to them. Recognition of this fact would undoubtedly lead to better and effective management of the diverse human resources in an organization. The problem of this study there for includes stand and make full use of the diverse human resources in their organization through the use of appropriate leadership styles, what type of leadership style is the most appropriate in an organization? What type of leadership style do subordinate in this institute prefer? What effect has these leadership style have on the organization objective goals and employees performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this study include.
1. To understand and evaluate the leadership style used in the organization.
2. To examine whether the leadership styles serve as effective tool in achieving an organizational objectives and goals.
3. To measure the impact of their leadership style performance of their employees.
4. To critically evaluate the various leadership styles identify the most appreciated styles for the institution in study.
5. To hook into the defect inherent in each leadership styles with a view of offering construction suggestions to the defects identified.
6. To recommend to the company and similar organized the various leadership(s) that they should adopt to attain corporate objectives.
1.4 SIGNFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study is basically a definite scope which will help elicit all the problems and effects of each different leadership style. Also, it will assist in highlighting how management employees react under stereo typed conditions. In addition all the mentioned and determined offers, problem and solution will be critically studied so as to provide basis for possible recommendations to today’s manager who may be willing to employ a particular leadership styles. It will proffer suggestions on situation that require certain leadership style to succeed. Finally, the research will assist future researchers in carrying out their study.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study will be centered on critical analysis of effective leadership style which has been a problem in an organization. The research question posed by the researcher are considered as follows:
1. Is there any effective and efficient leadership styles existing in federal polytechnic Nasarawa.
2. How does the leadership style affect workers
3. Is there any relationship existing between the present leadership style of federal polytechnic Nasarawa and the workers performance?
4. Is there any factors affecting the present leadership of federal polytechnic Nasarawa.
5. Is there any solution(s) to ensure effective and efficient leadership style in federal polytechnic Nasarawa.
The above question has been designed as research questions of the study.
1.6 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no effect of leadership style on organizational performance
H1: there is effect of leadership style on organizational performance
H02: there is no relationship between leadership style and organizational performance.
H2: there is relationship between leadership style and organizational performance.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is limited only to the institution- Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa as a case study. This research work is also confirmed to the public sector and not private sector, objectively, the finding of the study is on all business organization. The study will explore what leadership is as the diverse views of what leadership means to different people, it will give in sight to management issues. The study will definitely trace the historical background of the federal polytechnic Nasarawa among others the study will also, look at the different kinds of leadership styles and factors enhancing these leadership styles and how they affect workers productivity and performance.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research work was hindered by a number of constraints, these include. Financial constraints, problems of data collection on which there were reluctance in disclosing some vital information to the distribution of questionnaires, let alone fill them. Lastly, time is another constraint faced by the researcher because the time spent for this research work needs to be shared with other academic obligations. However, in spite of these constraints, efforts were made to ascertain and cross check facts and ensure an option use of information gathered in other to ensure a qualitative outcome.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
LEADERSHIP: it is the state or position of being a leader. A leader is therefore one who performs the activities of leading. In other words, a leader is someone who uses interpersonal relationship to influence the behavior of others toward task attainment.
EMPLOYEE: this refers to the personnel of an organization that is federal polytechnic Nasarawa.
PERFORMANCE: this shows the state of achieving a desired goal or degree of doing an act or accomplishing a work.
EFFICIENCY: this is capacity of an individual to perform duties effectively. It is also the state of being efficient.
OBJECTIVES: these are the goals of the organization that it seek to achieve through its operation. They are generally stated in clear concise and simple language
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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