ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill MITIGATES SODIUM ARSENITE-INDUCED LIPID PROFILE DERANGEMENTS IN WISTAR RATS

ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill MITIGATES SODIUM ARSENITE-INDUCED LIPID PROFILE DERANGEMENTS IN WISTAR RATS

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ABSTRACT

The effect of ethanol leaf extract of Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill on lipid profile in sodium arsenite-exposed Wistar albino rats was investigated. Forty (40) female wistar rats of weights between 100g-161g were randomized into 8 groups of 5 animals each. Group 1 served as control and was given normal feed and water ad libitum. Group 2 was administered 4.1mg/kg body weight (mg/Kgbw) sodium arsenite (SA) for 14days. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were post-treated with 100mg/Kgbw, 200mg/Kgbw, and 400mg/Kgbw of extract respectively for 14 days after SA intoxication for 14 days. Groups 6, 7, and 8 were administered 100mg/Kgbw, 200mg/Kgbw, and 400mg/Kgbw of extract respectively for 14days. Treatments were by oral administration and lasted for 28days. Sodium arsenite toxicity was shown by significant (p<0.05) increases in serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TAG), High density lipoprotein (HDL), Low density lipoprotein (LDL), Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and total lipid levels in group 2 as compared with the control. However, treatment with extract at different doses (groups 3, 4, 5) led to significant (p<0.05) decreases in all assayed parameters compared with group 2. Furthermore, treatment with extract only at different doses showed significant (p<0.05) and non-significant (p˃0.05) increases in assayed parameters compared with control except LDL levels which decreased significantly. Ethanol leaf extract of Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill may therefore be very useful in mitigating sodium arsenite-induced lipid metabolism derangements in Wistar rats.

Keywords: Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill, Sodium arsenite, Lipid profile, Lipid metabolism, Intoxication


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                                                 Page

Title page        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -          

Certification    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

Dedication      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Acknowledgement      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Abstract                      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

Table of Contents       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi

List of Tables              -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ix

List of Figures -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0       Introduction    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.1       Aim and Objectives    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           3

1.2       Justification     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           3

1.3       Significance of the Study       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           4

TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill     -           -           -           -           -           -           6

2.1.1    Scientific Classification          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           7

2.1.2    Medicinal values of Irvingia gabonensis        -           -           -           -           -           7

2.1.3    Phytochemical constituents of ethanol leafs extract of Irvingia gabonensis  -           8

2.2       Arsenic            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8

2.2.1    Sources of Arsenic Exposure -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9

2.2.2    Potential Pathways of Arsenic Exposure in Human   -           -           -           -           10

2.2.2.1 Non-Occupation Exposure     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           10

2.2.2.2 Occupational Exposure           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.2.3    Absorption and Transportation of Arsenic     -           -           -           -           -           12

2.2.4    Basic Mechanisms of Inorganic Arsenic Toxicity      -           -           -           -           13

2.2.5    Sodium Arsenite         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.3       Lipid   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           16

2.3.1    Functions of Lipids     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           16

2.3.2    Classification of Lipids           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           17

2.3.3    Sodium Arsenite and Lipids   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           18

2.3.4    Lipid Profile                -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           18

2.3.5    Components of Lipid Profile  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

2.3.5.1 Cholesterol      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

2.3.5.2 Low Density Lipoprotein (IDL)         -           -           -           -           -           -           19

2.3.5.3 High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)       -           -           -           -           -           -           20

2.3.5.4 Triacylglycerol (TAG)            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           20

2.3.5.5 Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)        -           -           -           -           -           21

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       Materials         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           22

3.1.1    Glasswares      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           22

3.1.2    Non-glasswares           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           22

3.1.3    Disposable Materials   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           22

3.1.4    Non-disposable Materials/Equipment -           -           -           -           -           -           23

3.1.5    Reagents/Chemicals    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           23

3.2       Methods          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           24

3.2.1    Collection, Authentification and Preparation of Plant Samples         -           -           24

3.2.1.1 Extraction       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           24

3.2.2    Experimental Animals            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           25

3.2.3    Experimental Design  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           25

3.2.3.1    Termination of Treatment/Sacrifice             -           -           -           -           -           -           27

3.2.3.2    Collection of Blood sample -           -           -           -           -           -           -           27

3.2.4         Lipid Profile Test    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           27

3.2.4.1     Assay Kits/Reagents           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           27

3.2.4.2     Serum Total Cholesterol Estimation          -           -           -           -       &nbs


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