EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM AND ALLIUM SATIVUM ON LIPID PROFILE OF RATS TREATED WITH SODIUM ARSENITE

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM AND ALLIUM SATIVUM ON LIPID PROFILE OF RATS TREATED WITH SODIUM ARSENITE

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Sodium arsenite isaninorganic compound with the formula with the formula NaASO2, it is also called sodium meta arsenite. It is a sodium salt of arsenous acid (Greenwood,1997). sodium arsenite is a colourless solid , sodium meta arsenite is produced by treating arsenic trioxide with sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide (Grund et al., 2005). Sodium arsenite is armophous and it is obtained as powder or as glassy mass. The compound consist of polymer associated with sodium cation while the polymer backbone has the connectivity –o-AS(o-)- (Eagleton, 2011).  sodum arsente can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic effect, its contact with these substance yields symptoms like skin irritation,burns,itching, rash, thickned skin, loss of pigment, poor appetite, a metalic or galic taste, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhae, convulsion, decreased blood presure and headache. Severe acute poisoining of sodium arsenite can lead to nervous system damage, weakness, poor coordination or pins nd needles sensation or eventually paralysis and death (New jersey department of health and senior service,2013)(Jing., et al.2012). sodium arsenite can be used primarily as pesticide but other uses include antiseptic dyeing, soap, hide,preservative (Considine, 2005). it is an appropriate chemical stresor that is induced in the production of heat shock protein (Bhagat et al.,2008) and durng the formation of cytoplasmic stress (Mc Ewen et al.,2005).

Gongronema latifolium (utazi) just like other tropical plant is highly medicinal and has been used over years tradiionally in the treatment of various ailment and disease and this plant is edible also it has various medicinal and nutritional purposes (Ugochuckwu et al’’2003). This plant is cultivated mostly in west african countries like Nigeria, cote d ivoire, sierra leone, ghana and senegal e.t.c. in the southern part of nigeria, this plant is commonly grown and it is known as utazi by the igbos while it is called arokeke in yoruba and ibibio or efik calls it urasi. Gongronema latifolium has a sharp bitter and slightly sweet taste especially when eaten fresh and it is used in preparing local delicacies, the part of this plant that is commonly used are the leaves, stem and root. Gongronema latifolium contains essential oils, glycoside, alkaloids, saponin and tanin also various minerals, vitamins and some essential amino acids. This plant exhibits the followwing herbal action like analgesic antitumour, broad spectrum antimicrobial (antibacterial,antifungal,antiparasitic and antiviral),antipyretic,antiodidant,anti inflammation, antiulcer, anti-sickling, anti-asthmatic, mild expectorate, hypoglycemia, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, digestive toxic and laxative propertise. some medicinal benefits of utazi (Gongronema latifolium) include:

a.      Relieves pain: the leaf relieves pin caused by bruises, cuts, inflammation, rashes e.t.c, aqueous extract of the leaf also reliefs internal pain and a paste of it should be applied to the affected part.

b.     Kills bacteria: methanol extract of Gongronema latifolium according to (Eleyinmi 2007) shows aactivity aganist S.aureus, L.monocytogene, S.enteritidis, P.aeruginosa and S.cholerasius

c.      Managment of diabetes: this leaf is good for managment of diabetes because it is useful in maintaining healthy blood glucose level.in clinical trial, the blood glucose concentration of healthy human is determined after consumption of the leaves and it helps to show significant reduction in blood glucose level. (Upadhyayop et al.,1996)

d.     Anti sickling agent: decotion of these root combine with other plant is used to treat sickle anemia cell patient.

e.      Antioxidant potential: preliminary works and other report shows the presence of saponin and flavonoid which had been shown to have antioxidant and anti microbial properties. (Morebise,1998).

f.       Aids digestion: utazi leave stimulate the digestive system, it stimulate the flow of bile and increases appetite for food. Juice extracted from utazi leave can be used in treatment of sore gum, colic, dyspepsia, loss of appetite, stomach ache, constipation, dysentery and intestinal worm.           

Allium sativum (Galic) which is a powerful medicinal plant or a functional food has been used to treat numerous disease and was used also as a remedy aganist plaque in the middle ages. Allium sativum is a powerful ally of cardiovascular system, it medicinal propertises involves its anticancer and antiviral function, this plant prevents cancer and tumour, it prevents cancer of the stomach, colon, lungs, and rectum. It also fights intestinal and stomach parasites like Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori, It also protect pollution and tobacco smokes. Allium sativum also exhibits its main effect which is to protect metabolism and the healthy functioning of the body and organs. It also act as external shield that prevent different disease and diverse infectious agent from invading the body and it as well clears everything in its path as well as improving circulation. Allium sativum combact high blood pressure, protect the heart and promotes good blood circulation, it is also effective in combacting diabeties and cholesterol and also purifying the blood.

Lipd profile is a panel of blood test that serves as screening tools for abnormalties in lipid such as cholesterol and triglyceride, the result of lipd test can identify genetic diseases, certain forms of pncreatitis and other diseases. The lipid profile includes low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC). Using these values, we can also calculate: very low density lipoprotein and the ratio of cholesterol to high density lipoprotein. The seven types of test in lipid profile test include:

a.      Total lipid

b.     Serum total cholesterol

c.      Serum HDL cholesterol

d.     Total cholesterol divided by HDL cholesterol ratio

e.      Serum triglyceride

f.       Serum phospholipid

g.     Electrophoretic fractionation to determine the percentage of chylomicrons, LDL, VLDL, HDL

Lipid profile test helps to identify dyslipidemia (this is  disorder in cholesterol and triglyceride levels), many forms of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and rarely pancreatitis. Total cholesterol helps to asses individual risk for heart disease however, it can not be relied on as the only indicator because component that makes up total cholesterol is LDL, HDL, VLDL and this are also important in measuring the risk.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

          Individuals working in the industry where sodium arsenite is produced are exposed to this chemicals and the chemical is carcinogenic, and the problem is that the treatment is expensive when using orthodox drugs but the traditional treatment using medicinal plant are cheap, affordable and with minimum side effect, also the orthodox drug causes free radicals.

1.3       Aims and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this research is to determine the toxicological effect of sodium arsenite on the lipid profile of albino Wistar rat and the neutralizing effect of ethanol combine extract of Gongronema latifolium (utazi) and Allium sativum (garlic)

1.4       Justification of Study

          The ethanol combine extract of Gongronema latifolium (utazi) and Allium sativum (garlic) has been used as medicinal treatment and they have various pharmacological activities. This plant species are better used for treatment due to their availability and they are cheap to afford.


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