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This study examines the role of Microfinance bank in the development of small scale enterprise using Afemai Microfinance Bank as a Case Study. The main objective of this study is to ascertain if microfinance bank provide for the needs of the people and also to examine if microfinance bank help in the provision of soft loan to assist the small scale investors. The small scale entrepreneurs in rural areas lack the necessary financial services, especially credit from the commercial banks. It was discovered from the study that microfinance bank assists in the development of small scale. The study concluded that the proportion of overdraft granted over the period is much higher than that of loans granted. This result from the fact that granting of overdraft facilities is more profitable to the bank. The study however recommends amongst others that the bank should avoid making strengthful demand on perspective borrowers in terms of types and numbers of form to be completed, high collateral securities and other protocols, as these hider economic developments.
1.1 Background to the Study
The ideal of micro-finance banking become necessary due to the inability of the conventional banking schemes to mobilize the dormant funds in rural area and channel them into needy factor. Besides, small business and the rural farmers needed to inculcate banking culture. Their idle funds needed to be mobilized for onward lending to the productive sector hence the need for microfinance banks arose.
Much effort have been made in the past by successive government to involve rural dwellers in Nigeria in modern banking practice the extend credit to them in terms that are easily attainable earlier on, in obedience to the Central Bank directive the commercial banks opened braches in many communities.
In spite of opening of such branches, it was not possible to make banking attractive to Rural dwellers. This was because banking operations even in the rural braches have continued to be complex, cumbersome and too complicated for the level of education and enlightenment at the rural people participation therefore, was not just possible.
In Nigeria, according to Ezike (2001), the main objective of rural banking is to effectively mobilize saving in the rural area and bring credit close and within the reach of the long-credit starved farmer.
However, like the previous schemes, aimed at small business in the rural/urban area, the rural banking scheme has failed to accomplish its set objectives of providing for the rural people in particular. Against the background, this study is designed to x – ray the role of microfinance banking (Afemai Microfinance Bank) in the socio-economic development of Nigeria with a focus on Small Scale Enterprises in Edo State.
1.2Statement of Problem
The banking industry is quite a risky business and a lot of fears are being exercised in establishing bank branches in rural areas because of inadequate security and fear incurring losses in the course of their operations.
There is a problem associated with the non-provision of loans to small scale businessmen/women. The problem of rural-urban drift lack of employment opportunities, inaccessibility of infrastructure, road, electricity, potable water, telephone services, among other which for a long time have been denied the rural communication.
1. Does microfinance bank provide for the needs of the people?
2. Does microfinance bank assist in the development of small scale?
3. Is microfinance bank a base for development of the rural infrastructure?
4. Does microfinance bank help in the provision of soft loan to assist the small scale investors?
1.4Objectives of the Study
The following are the main objectives of this study;
· To ascertain if microfinance bank provide for the needs of the people.
· To ascertain if microfinance bank assist in the development of small scale.
· To determine if microfinance bank is a base for development of the rural infrastructure?
· To examine if microfinance bank help in the provision of soft loan to assist the small scale investors.
1.5Statement of Hypotheses
In doing this study, the researcher has adopted the following hypothesis designed to accomplish the objective of the study.
Ho: Microfinance bank does not provide for the needs of the people.
HI: Microfinance banks provides for the needs of the people.
Ho: Microfinance bank does not assist in the development of small scale.
HI: Microfinance bank assists in the development of small scale.
Ho: Microfinance bank is not a base for development of the rural infrastructure.
HI: Microfinance bank is a base for the development of the rural infrastructure.
Ho: Microfinance bank does not help in the provision of soft loan to assist the small scale investors.
HI: Microfinance banks help in the provision of soft loan to assist the small scale investors.
1.6Significance of the Study
Microfinance banking service has become relevant instruments for the socio-economic development of our rural areas. Rural Micro-finance banks occupy a pride of place like the economic activities of the rural people.
Significantly, this study will contribute to the existing literature for information and reference.
Also, it will enable management of banks know the problems of rural banking and hence be able to take effective decision about them.
The study will also serve as a source of information for those who will embark on a similar research.
1.7Scope of the Study
This study is limited to the services of the microfinance bank in Nigeria with a focus on Afemai Microfinance Bank. A time frame of 5 years (2010 – 2014) was used in executing the survey with a sample size of 30 for effective result.
1.8Limitations of the Study
The framework is this study is limited due to time constraints and the financial involvement in carrying out a detailed and thorough extensive work on the impact of microfinance banking in rural development.
Perhaps, the greatest limitation of this work stemmed from the limited available secondary data at the researcher’s disposal.
Ignorance and low literacy level among the Nigerian public, as well as suspicious among them greatly limited my data gathering especially during random sample interview carried out. This low awareness and lack of orientation limited this study.
Also, was the dearth of data in this field, as the library could not supply all data needed, and even most of the books catalogued were not in the shelf, and even if found there irrelevant and pertinent pages have been torn out, and of course most of the books were outdated.
1.9Definition of Terms
In this research, the researcher made use of some technical but related terms for case of understanding and application the following functional definition have been giving.
· Micro Finance Bank: Bank is seen as self sustaining finance institution, owned and managed by a community for the purpose providing credit banking and other financial services to its member largely on they basis self recognition and credit works.
· Deposit: Money kept in a bank not to be withdrawn without notices on which interest is payable.
· Credit: A payment made to somebody on trust on the ground that such money will be repaid as at when due.
· DFRRI: The Directorate of Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure.
· Interest Rate: This can be defined as the rate at which the commercial banks lend money to the public.
· Savings: An amount or a sum of money deposited in the bank on which interest is payable which also can be written by depositor at will.
· CBN: Central banks of Nigerian.
· Interest Risk: The risk borne by a lender that interest rate an economy will raise causing a fall in capital value of the loan.
· Cash Flow Statement: It is financial information which shows the cash inflow and out of an enterprise in a give accounting year or a reporting period but include inflow rising for change in cash as a result of the purchasing and liquidation of cash equivalent.
· Discounting Cash Flow Techniques: This is use to ensure comparability of cash flow accruing at different times.
· Financial Bank: That part of organization risk that arise from using capital, partly finance by capital financial risk together with business risk made up total risk.
· Coupon Risk: This is the rate of interest pardon the nominal value of retained securities, unless the securities have a market value capital to their nominal value the actual yield will not equal to coupon rate.
· Bad and Doubtful Debt: Portion of loan and advance granted by banks that are considered uncollected because they are not operating to schedule.
· Credit Management: The whole system of credit control, which aims at ensuring good quality loan asset for bank at all times.
· Classified Balance: This is the customer is total habit less value of any security held which recoverable and the accumulated interest charges from the time the account was classified or in bad debt category.
· Business Risk: That part of business organization risk which arises from it commercial activities business risk together with financial risk makes up total risk.
· Correlation: The extent to which variation in the value of one variable are associated with variation in that of another variable. For example it is generally true that the return from any particular asset are corrected with return from the generally.
· Annuity: A series of constant cash flows receivable for a specified number of years.
· Equity: The risk bearing portion of the long-term capital of a business organization for a company it is the share capital and reserve.
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