STUDY ON HEMATOLOGY, HISTOLOGY, AND EXPRESSION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN WISTAR RATS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA BRUCIE BRUCIE AND TRYPANOSOMA CONGOLENSE

STUDY ON HEMATOLOGY, HISTOLOGY, AND EXPRESSION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN WISTAR RATS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA BRUCIE BRUCIE AND TRYPANOSOMA CONGOLENSE

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ABSTRACT

Trypanosomosis is a major public health problem to man, which has a higher incident in tropical

Africa. Protozoan parasite of the genus Trypanosoma causes the disease and it has been shown to

have a fatal neurological effect if left untreated. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of

Trypanosoma brucie brucie (T. brucei) and Trypanonsoma congolense (T. congolense) infection

on the hematological indices, histology of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum, pineal gland and glia

cell (astrocytes) GFAP immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus of adult Wistar rats. Infected blood

of about 0.5ml containing an inoculum dose of approximately 2.0 x 106 live T. b brucie (Fadare Strain)

and T. congolense (Sahara strain) parasites for group two and three respectively was used to infect

apparently healthy twenty Wistar rats (ten animals for each group) intraperitoneally. Eight other rats

served as uninfected controls. Trypanosomes were detected in the blood of T. b brucie infected rats 2-3

days post-infection (PI) due to its virulent nature and in the blood of T. congolense infected rats 14 days

PI. Parasitemia was estimated using blood smear from tail vein 24hours post infection to monitor disease

progression, 7 days PI T. b brucie infected groups was humanely sacrificed while T. congolense infected

group was sacrificed on day 21 PI. Brain tissue of the Wistar rats was processed histologically and stained

with H and E and GFAP anti body, after which astrocyte cell count was done. Blood of the wistar rats

was also taken and their haematological parameters analyzed. Hematological parameters such as

hemoglobin, pack cell volume, white blood cell, white blood cells, platelet count etc were observed to

decreased in the infected groups as compared to the control, Histological changes such as pyknotic

pyramidal cells (indicative of dead cell) was observed in the infected groups when compared with the

control; more also this study shown that T.congolense caused more neaurodegeneration compared to T.

Brucie brucie: by significant (p<0.05) increase in the number of mean astrocyte cells in the dentate gyrus

of the hippocampus (control: 80.60 ± 10.08, T.b brucie 169.80 ± 20.96, T. congolense 225.80 ± 18.16)

13


Trypanosoma brucie brucie is more virulent than T. congolense and causes more negative

changes in the blood parameters; however, T. congolense infection caused severe histological

changes in the cytoarchitexture of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum and pineal gland with

subsequent hyper activation of the astrocyte in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus compared

to T.b brucie.

Key words: Trypanosome brucie brucie, Trypanasome congolense, brain tissue, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)


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