Get the complete project »
- The Complete Research Material is averagely 43 pages long and it is in Ms Word Format, it has 1 - 5 Chapters.
- Major Attributes are Abstract.
- Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
- Full Access Fee: ₦4,000
1.1 BACKGROUNG OF STUDY
This is a genus of the family Euphorbiaceae. It was first identified in Central and Southern India in 18th century. It is called carry me seed, stone-breaker, wind breaker, gulf leaf flower or gala of wind, (Bharatiya 1992).
There are over 300 genera with over 5,000 species in the Euphorbiaceae world wide. The Phyllantus is one of the genus that falls under this enormous family. Phyllantus has about 750-800 species, found in tropical and subtropical regions. Green medicine is safe and more dependable than the costly synthetic drugs, many of which have adverse side effects (Joseph and Raj, 2010). The use of medicinal plants by man for the treatment of diseases has been in practice for a very long time. Screening of compounds obtained from plants for their pharmacological activity has resulted in the isolation of innumerable therapeutic agents.
Over 50% of all modern chemical drugs are of natural plant product origin and is essential in drug development programs of the pharmaceutical industry (Burton et. al 1983).
1.1.2 Phyllantus amarus (P. amarus)
P. amarus is an erect annual herb of not more than one and half feet tall and has small leaves and yellow flowers. It is a broad medicinal plant that has received world-wide recognition (Srividiya and Perival, 1995).
In herbal medicine, P. amarus has reportedly been used to treat jaundice, diabetes, otitis, diarrhea, swelling, skin ulcer, gastrointestinal disturbances and blocks DNA polymerase in the case of hepatitis B virus during reproduction, (Oluwafemi, and Debiri, 2008).
In Nigeria, it is called “Oyomokeisoamankedem” in Efik, “Iyin Olobe” in Yoruba and “Ebebenizo” in Bini (Etta, 2008). In traditional medicine, it is used for its hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti- microbial properties (Adeneye et al; 2006). The plant is also used in the treatment of stomach disorders, skin diseases and cold (Kokwaro, 1976; Iwu, 1993). It has anti-diarrhoea effect (Odetola and Akojenu, 2000). Its anti-viral activity against hepatitis B virus has been established (Thyagarajan et al; 1988, Wang et al; 1995), anti- carcinogenic (Joy and Kuttan, 1998), anti mutagenic activities (Joy and Kuttan, 1998), antiplasmodial (Soh et al. 2009).
Plants contain numerous constituents, some tend to possess some level of toxicity. Cases of this toxicity in plants have been reported (Santox et al; 1995, Shaw et al; 1997, Kaplowitz, 1997). P. amarus has been classified among plants with a low potential for toxicity, with an LD50 averaging 2000mg/kg 1day (Krithika and Verma, 2009).
1.1.3 Phyllantus niruri (P. niruri)
P. niruri is commonly called stone breaker, also known as “Chanca piedra”. It belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. P. niruri is similar to P. amarus. It is a wide spread tropical plant commonly found in coastal areas that grows 40-70cm tall (Chukwuma, 2012).
In Nigeria, it is called enyikwonwa and ngwu in Ibo, Oyokeso amanke edem in Efik, geeron- tsemtsaayee in Hausa, ehin olobe and yin-olobe in Yoruba (Chukwuma, 2012).
Although P. niruri is considered a problematic weed to formers it is a valuable medicinal plant. (Oudhia and Tripathi, 2002), and holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine. Recently, it has attracted the attention of researchers, because of its hepatoprotective (ability to prevent damage to the liver) properties. No effective specific therapy is available for viral Hepatitis but P. niruri has shown clinical efficiency in viral Heptatis B (Paranjape, 2001).
P. niruri is an annual plant, its stem is angular with numerous distichous, ellipticoblong leaves. Flowers are yellow and very numerous; monoecious with 1-3 staminate flowers and solitary pistillate flower borne axillary. Fruits capsule, very small, globose, smooth, seeds 3-gonous, longitudinally ribbed on the back. Seed to seed cycle occurs in two or four weeks (Caius 1986), (Agharkar 1991). Its root, leaves, fruits, milky juice and whole plants are used as medicine. According to Ayurvedic system of medicine it is considered acrid, cooling, aleixipharmic and useful in thirst, bronchitis, leprosy, anemia, urinary disharge, anuria, boiliousness, asthma, for hiccups, and as a diuretic. According to Unani system of medicine, it is stomachic and good for sores and useful in Chromic dysentery. Fruits useful for tubercular ulcers, wounds, sores, scabies and ring worm (Agharkar 1991, Krishanamurty 1993). The fresh root is believed to be an excellent remedy for jaundice.
In many parts of India, it is commonly used for the treatment of snake bite. The active compounds phyllanthin and hypophyllanthim, nirtetralin and phyltetralin have been isolated from leaves, (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1991). The plant is used as a fish poison. In many parts of India especially in deserts, the roots mixed with Commiphora mukul are given to camels to cure indigestion. The decoction of leaves and stem are used for dying cotton black, (Singh et al; 1996).
P. niruri is one of the medicinal plants used to treat malaria in India and Nigeria. P. niruri has been used traditionally to treat various illnesses including renal stones, gastrointestinal disturbance, cough, hepatitis, gonoorhea, fever and malaria. It has also been reported to posses hypoglycemic activity (Hukuri, et al; 1988), angiotension converting enzyme inhibition (Ueno, et al; 1988), lipid lowering activity (Khanna, et al; 2002), anti HIV activity (Qian cutron, et al; 1996) and anti cancer activity (Giridharan, et al; 2002).
1.2 Aim and objectives
This study is aimed at showing which of the plants above is more effective in the treatment of diseases caused by micro-organisms based in the natural products present in them.
The specific objecti ves include;
a. Determination of antibacterial effect of P. amarus and P. niruri.
b. Determination of anti fungal effect of P. amarus and P. niruri.
You either get what you want or your money back. T&C Apply
Share a Comment
You can find more project topics easily, just search
SIMILAR INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY FINAL YEAR PROJECT RESEARCH TOPICS
» ABSTRACT Ten representative soil samples were collected along major gutters within Nkpor metropolis. The soil samples were digested using mixtures of ...Continue Reading »
57 pages | 104 hits | Source: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
2. PRODUCTION OF COPPER-CLAD PRINTED CIRCUIT BARE BOARD SUBSTRATE FROM AGRICULTURAL AND PLASTIC WASTE MATERIALS.» ABSTRACT The use of printed circuit board is unavoidable within the electrical and electronic industries. Various types and models exist, all made fro...Continue Reading »
104 pages | 119 hits | Source: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
» CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This work, Chemistry and Therapeutic Effects of Analgesics is an effort to bring together various works which has been done abo...Continue Reading »
52 pages | 517 hits | Source: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
4. INSECTICIDAL POTENTIAL OF Hyptis Suaveolens USING DIFFERENT EXTRACTS (ETHANOL, N-HEXANE AND CHLOROFORM).» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study The development of organic chemistry took place along with the study of plants, mainly in the 19t...Continue Reading »
36 pages | 427 hits | Source: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
5. INVESTIGATION OF EFFECTS OF TWO FLAME RETARDANTS ON THE FIRE CHARACTERISITICS OF FLEXIBLE POLYETHER FOAM» ABSTRACT This work studied the effects of two flame retardants on the fire characteristics of flexible polyether foam samples. Various concentrations ...Continue Reading »
152 pages | 111 hits | Source: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
» ABSTRACT Bush fire is a common hazard in South Eastern Nigeria as in other parts of the country during the harmattan. Every year, thousands of hectare...Continue Reading »
152 pages | 102 hits | Source: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 INSECTICIDES (General Overview) Insecticide is a substance or a mixture of substances used for killing insects. It is ...Continue Reading »
52 pages | 276 hits | Source: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
8. THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF ON THE CORROSION OF MILD STEEL IN 5 M AND 1 M HYDROCHLORIC ACID (HCl)» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of study Corrosion of materials has continued to receive interest in the technological world as its effects on...Continue Reading »
60 pages | 251 hits | Source: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
9. INVESTIGATION OF EFFECTS OF ALUM AND POTASSIUM SESQUICARBONATE ON THE FIRE CHARACTERISTICS OF FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM» ABSTRACT The effectiveness of alum and potassium sesquicarbonate was studied by incorporating various concentrations of the flame retardants into the ...Continue Reading »
135 pages | 295 hits | Source: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND (PREAMBLE) Technology has played an important role in man’s development and thus, has helped ...Continue Reading »
67 pages | 6 hits | Source: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY