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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Bamboo, the giant grass, is a vernacular term for members of subfamily Bambusoideae of family Poaceae. Bamboo is a predominant species of the humid subtropics/ tropics forest ecosystem of the north-east hill region of the Indian subcontinent In Asia, the history of bamboo is inextricably interwoven with human history so much that parts of Asia could be described as a “bamboo civilization.” Bamboo has unique rhizomal growth feature by which culms (individual bamboo) in the clump (cluster of culms) are interconnected and reproduce asexually to produce new culms every year. This characteristic distinguishes bamboo from most other woody plants.
Bamboos are cultivated and managed in traditional home gardening system (an age old tropical agroforestry system) to fulfill diverse livelihood requirements and provide numerous environmental services to rural community. Furthermore, bamboo plantations protect traditional homesteads from winds, provide construction materials and fuel wood. Bamboo plays an important role in maintaining and improving the nutrient status of the soil (Kleinhenz et al. 2001). From a comparative study, it was reported that the presence of bamboo in the forest significantly affected the physical and chemical properties of soil (Christanty and Kimmins, 1996). Nutrient content in soil was positively related to yield and explained much of variation in yield across bamboo sites and regions in China (Hong S S, 1994 and Shanmughavel et al. 2001).
Hence, bamboo growth and biomass are positively related to soil organic matter, which is the primary source of nutrients in bamboo cultivation sites in Korea (Jim and Chong, 1982). Bamboo can grow in relatively poor soil and efficiently make use of the available nutrients and build up relatively fertile soil around the clumps (Singh and Singh, 1999). While studying the relationship between soil conditions and fountain bamboo (Sinarundinaria fangiana), it was observed that bamboo grew well on acid soil with low base saturation, deep, and low gravel content of soils but died in the alkaline, shallow, calcareous soil with high gravel content (Zhang, 1996). A canonical correlation analysis for bamboo growth showed that surface soil depth, total nitrogen (N), and soil organic matter content had high positive correlation, and clay content and cation exchange capacity were negatively correlated with the bamboo growth (Chung and Ramma, 1990). Studies related to soil and bamboo revealed emphasis has been given to forest bamboos, whereas bamboo plantations remain unexplored although it forms an important component of the agroforestry systems of south Asia, especially in India and Bangladesh.
In traditional agro-forestry systems, bamboos are grown on soils of poor quality or degraded site of the holdings. Therefore, bamboo has been traditionally used to reclaim degraded lands. Despite the significant impact of bamboos to the livelihood and wellbeing of farmers, there exists the need of scientific understandings of the role of pure plantations of bamboo management on sustaining soil nutrient status.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Bamboo is a versatile crop with many uses. It has important direct and indirect economic and ecological benefits such as providing housing, furniture, artisan products and soil and water conservation.The ignorant of the various uses of bamboo might be a problem the people of Delta is encountering. Another problem could be that the governments do not put more resources in the plantation and the extraction of bamboo. There might not also be technical hands or an experienced hand in the cultivation and extraction processes. Bamboo still has the stigma of being a poor man’s timber and so people tend to neglect its usefulness or purpose. Finally, many researches has been carried out on bamboo extraction but not even a single research has been carried out on the impact of bamboo extraction in the detoxification of coal rich soul in Ukwu-Nzu in Aniocha North L.G.A of Delta state.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to examine the impact of bamboo extraction in the detoxification of coal rich soil. Other specific objectives of the study include:
1. to determine the effect of bamboo extraction on coal rich soil.
2. to determine the factors affecting bamboo extraction on the detoxification of coal rich soil.
3. to determine the extent to which bamboo extraction detoxifies coal rich soil.
4. to determine the relationship between bamboo extraction and detoxification of coal rich soil.
5. to proffer possible solutions to the problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the effect of bamboo extraction on coal rich soil?
2. What are the factors affecting bamboo extraction on the detoxification of coal rich soil?
3. What is the extent to which bamboo extraction detoxifies coal rich soil?
4. What is the relationship between bamboo extraction and detoxification of coal rich soil?
5. What are the possible solutions to the problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Bamboo extraction has no impact on the detoxification of coal rich soil
H1: Bamboo extraction has impact on the detoxification of coal rich soil
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the impact of bamboo extraction in the detoxification of coal rich soil will be of immense benefit to the entire Aniocha North L.G.A in the sense that it will enable the government to put resources in the cultivation and extraction processes of bamboo for the benefit of the citizens therein. The study will also enable the government to be proactive in tapping opportunities in the bamboo sector; it is a new addition to the small medium enterprises (SME) sector in the country. It is unique in that it is a very eco-friendly SME. This can be done by partnering with the private financial institutions to evolve special packages for development assistance especially in areas of machine procurement. The study will also educate the citizens of the various uses of bamboo. The study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the impact of bamboo extraction in the detoxification of coal rich soil is limited to Ukwu-Nzu in Aniocha North L.G.A. of Delta state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ImpactA marked effect or influence.
BambooThe bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
ExtractionThe process of removing something
DetoxificationIs the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances.
SoilThe upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles.
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