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This study is aimed at determining the optimal quantity of raw materials to be ordered for and when best to make the order. It also aimed in determing the completion time in the producer of paint. A case study of Aka paint industry limited was taken. To complete these, data was collected from the company and the project network was drawn. Mathematical models such as economic lot size model were used to determine the optimal quality of the raw materials to be kept on inventory. This study addressed a non-linear optimization model by integrating production planning and inventory control in the automotive industry at the strategic and operational level. In order to provide an effective modeling, we developed a framework to integrate manufacturing system and suppliers within an automotive supply chain network. The numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model on minimization of total delivery cost and due date delivery.
1.1 Background to the study
The development of any firm more especially in production depends to a very great extent on the development and utilization of raw materials. Because of increased techniques and advanced in technology organizations ensure steady production and supply of their goods by storing certain quantities of raw materials as buffer against unprecedented short fall in their supplies.
Certain stocks of finished goods are maintained in order to meet up with unforeseen demand or short - notice orders. Inventory is referred to as the stock of raw materials finished goods and work- in progress. The best planned and managed enterprises survive and efficiency of a company’s operation is directly related to the inventory situation existing within it.
Inventory control enables organization to determine when it is necessary to stock physical goods or commodities for the purpose of specified periods of time. Amount of inventory results to high capital costs, high operating cost and decreased production efficiency when too much space is used while insufficient inventory leads to inability of the firm to meet up with the demand for its product and in severe case leads to shut downs if there occurs a drop or half in supply of raw materials.
According to Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary, network is a system of broadcasting stations that link up to broadcast the same programs of the same time. Network analysis is a family of related techniques developed to aid management in planning and control of projects scheduling and coordinating various inter - related activities that define a project. In a production of specified duration, network analysis is inter - relationship of the various jobs, or tasks, which make up the overall and obvious identify the critical paths of the production.
1.2 Brief history of Aka Paint (Nig) Limited
This Industry was developed through the inspiration of Nze B.C Onuoha. He engaged in car selling and paint making business. Due to his real to reduce human suffering, manufacturing in the year 1994 as a limited liability company. It is located at Enyiogugu in Aboh Mbaise. It has three depots located at 139 Wetheral Road Owerri, opposite Timber market Oguta Road Mgbidi and 45 Aba Owerri Road Aba, Abia State respectively. In 1994, the European commission came and help to introduced the company.
The official opening of the company took place in 1995. the objects clause as stated in the memorandum of association of the company is to produce, sale, import, distribute paints other chemical related items. The company has four major department namely production/ quality control department personnel department, account department and sales/ marketing department.
1.2.1 Industrial activities
· Essentially for local Nigeria market – replacement and original equipment
· Exports of car paints.
1.2.2 Types of paint manufactured
- Emulsion paints
- Texcote paints
- Gloss paints
- Car paints
To produce these products several raw materials are needed and in different proportions. Some of the raw materials in puts includes methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) toluene resin, petrol, kerosene, ethylene glycol, etc, these products yield different levels of profit to the company and how to make profits as large possible is mystifying to management.
Furthermore, the scarcity of some of these raw materials limits the flexibility of management in production. Other restricting factor as interview disclosed are labour time and demand for the products.
1.3 The need for an inventory
The inventory of a company can be described as the totality of stocks of various kinds which include raw materials, partly finished goods and materials, subassemblies, office and workshop supplies and finished goods.
The fundamental reason for inventory is that it is physically impossible and economically impracticable for each stock item to arrive exactly when it is needed other reasons are:
· Anticipating normal demand
· Taking advantage of bulk- purchase discounts.
· Meeting emergency shortages due to some unforeseen circumstance like strikes breakdown of the firm’s plant or vehicle
· Absorbing wastage and unpredictable fluctuation etc.
1.4 Inventory cost
(a) Purchase or manufacturing cost :- This is per unit cost of buying or making a unit of production. This includes transportation, clerical and administrative costs associated with the physical movement of bought goods. The unit price of the commodity decreases as the ordered quantity increases.
(b) Holding or carring cost :- This is the cost of carrying item in storage of inventory until it is sold or used. This include
(i) Interest on capital invested in the stock
(ii) Storage costs or changes (rent lighting heating air conditioning etc)
(iii) Insurance security
(iv) Stores staffing equipment maintaince and running costs. Holding cost increase with the level of inventory.
(c) Shortage or penalty or stock out cost:- These are the cost associated with running out of stock. These include
(i) Cost contribution through the best sale called by the stock out
(ii) Loss of future sales because consumers goes elsewhere
(iii) Loss of consumers good will
(d) Setup cost :- This is the cost of placing an order for a commodity from an outside vendor, which is independent of the number of units ordered for
1.5 Inventory control system
The general objective of inventory control is to keep stock level so that the combined costs are at a minimum. This could be achieved with factors via
- When to order
- How many to order
The two major systems of establishing these are
(a) Re-order level system
(b) Periodic review system
(a) The Re-order level system is also known as two- bin system its features are
(i) A predetermined re-order level is set fro each item
(ii) The replenishment order quantity is invariably the EOQ (i.e the Economic Order Quantity)
(iii) When the stock level falls to the re- order level, replenishment is issued
(iv) The minimum level is calculated so the management would be warned when demand is above average and accordingly the butter stock is utilized
(b) Periodic review system this is sometimes called the costant circle system. Its features are
(i) Stock levels for all parts are revived at fixed intervals e.g every week
1.6 Statement of problem
An inventory problem is one which seeks to determine when it is necessary to stock physical goods or commodities for the purpose of satisfying demand over a specified period of time
This type of problem aims at knowing how much of the commodity order for and when to make the order. An over stock requires higher invested capital per unit time but less frequent occurrence of shortages and placement of orders. Whereas an under stock decreases the invested capital per unit time but increase the frequency ordering as well as the risk of running out of stock.
1.7 Aim and Objectives
The main aim of this study is to examine the optimal inventory control of raw materials in network analysis of production planning.
The following are the specific objectives of the study:
1. To examine the inventory management practices of Aka Paint.
2. To find the minimum values for the delivery due date of raw materials
3. To determine the effect inventory management practices of raw materials in production planning.
4. To determine the challenges with inventory management.
1.8 Significance of the study
The significance of the study is mainly attributed to the need for measuring result of inventory operations for a particular period such as month of year. This study will point out the importance of inventory control and management of raw material of production planning.
This study will also create an opportunity for existing and prospective employers and employees to benefit from the use of modern inventory control and management techniques that will be recommended. To students, it will improve their theoretical and practical knowledge of inventory management and control in Aka Paint Nig. Ltd.
1.9 Scope of the study
The management and control of inventories cover physical control, accounting control and management policies and procedures relating to inventory. This study is based on production planning and is limited to Aka Paint Nig. Ltd. The study shall cover their ordering method, procurement method, production and planning including the supply chain analysis and the inventory management and control techniques that aid in the achievement of the organizational goal.
1.10 Limitation of the study
The absence of any previous empirical study on the management and control of inventories raw materials in Aka Paint Ltd is a significant limitation to this study.
These absences of an existing body of study on this area in the institution posses a special problem of the absence of previous reference or primary data from the scratch through questionnaire administration and designed to supplement available secondary data. However, financial constraints are expected to present a very serious limitation to the study since it would limit the researcher’s data material and the presentation of existing evidence.
1.11 Organization of Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
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