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CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

All of us travel at least once in our life and when we are at a new place one of the major issue we face is that being naive to that place we don't know the roads and routes. There are times when you want to be at a particular place in a new city on time and you start your journey to reach that place on time, but as you are new and at the same time are not aware of the routes you get late. It is a good idea to have a map rather than getting confused about the roads in a new city. Most of the maps provide exact information about the different locations in the city (Christopher, 2010).

In geography maps are one of the most important tools researchers, cartographers, students and others can use to examine the entire Earth or a specific part of it. Simply defined maps are pictures of the Earth's surface. They can be general reference and show landforms, political boundaries, water, the locations of cities, or in the case of thematic maps, show different but very specific topics such as the average rainfall distribution for an area or the distribution of a certain disease throughout a county.

Today with the increased use of GIS, also known as Geographic Information Systems, thematic maps are growing in importance. There are however applications for different types of general reference maps when the different types are understood correctly. These maps do not just show a city's location for example; instead the different map types can show a plethora of information about places around the world. A road map is one of the most widely used map types. These maps show major and minor highways and roads (depending on detail) as well as things like airports, city locations and points of interest like parks, campgrounds and monuments (Amanda, 2013).

The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) is an organization set up by the Nigerian government to involve the country's graduates in the development of the country. There is no military conscription in Nigeria, but since 1973 graduates of universities and later Polytechnics have been required to take part in the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) program for one year.

This is known as national service year."Corp" members are posted to cities far from their city of origin. They are expected to mix with people of other tribes, social and family backgrounds, to learn the culture of the indigenes in the place they are posted to. This action is aimed to bring about unity in the country and to help youths appreciate other ethnic groups.

There is an "Orientation" period of approximately three weeks spent in a camp away from family and friends. There is also a "passing out ceremony" at the end of the year and primary assignment followed by one month of vacation.

The program has also helped in creating entry level jobs for a lot of Nigerian youth. An NYSC forum dedicated to the NYSC members was recently built to bridge the gap amongst members serving across Nigeria and also an avenue for corpers to share job information and career resources as well as getting loans from the National Directorate Of Employment.

Looking at Nigerian, NYSC was created to foster unity among Nigeria’s about 250 ethnic groups and to create a sense of nationhood and selfless service among young people. There use to be two NYSC batches, namely batch A and batch B. However, with so many graduates waiting for NYSC call up, NYSC now have three batches, batch A, batch B, and batch C.
The NYSC programmes runs for about 12 months and during that period, graduates of Universities and Polytechnic are deployed to serve in states that are not their state of origin.

An internship is a method of on-the-job training for white-collar and professional careers. Internships for professional careers are similar to apprenticeships for trade and vocational jobs. Although interns are typically college or university students, they can also be high school students or post-graduate adults. Generally, an internship consists of an exchange of services for experience between the student and an organization. Students can also use an internship to determine if they have an interest in a particular career, create a network of contacts, or gain school credit. Some interns find permanent, paid employment with the organizations with which they interned. This can be a significant benefit to the employer as experienced interns often need little or no training when they begin regular employment. Unlike a trainee program, however, employment at the completion of an internship is not guaranteed(Tsai,A.A & Sarah,W. C.,2006).

The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) is an organization set up by the Nigerian government to involve the country's graduates in the development of the country. There is no military conscription in Nigeria, but since 1973 graduates of universities and later Polytechnics have been required to take part in the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) program for one year. This is known as national service year. "Corp" members are posted to cities far from their city of origin. (Olamide, 2009).

The NYSC scheme was created in a bid to reconstruct, reconcile and rebuild the country after the Nigerian Civil war. The unfortunate antecedents in our national history gave impetus to the establishment of the National Youth Service Corps by decree No.24 of 22nd May 1973 which stated that the NYSC is being established with a view to the proper encouragement and development of common ties among the youths of Nigeria and the promotion of national unity.

 As a developing country, Nigeria is further plagued by the problems attendant upon a condition of under development, namely; poverty mass illiteracy, acute shortage of high skilled manpower (coupled with most uneven distribution of the skilled people that are available), woefully inadequate socioeconomic infrastructural facilities, housing, Water and sewage facilities, road, healthcare services, and effective communication system. . This was done with a view to giving them the proper guidance and orientation relevant to the needs of the country.

The National Youth Service Corps Decree No. 24 which has now been repealed and replaced by Decree 51 of 16th June 1993  was then formally promulgated. The purpose of the scheme is primarily to inculcate in Nigerian Youths the spirit of selfless service to the community, and to emphasize the spirit of oneness and brotherhood of all Nigerians, irrespective of cultural or social background (Rob, G. R.& Coronel, 2013)..

The scheme has over the years allowed for the regular and effective distribution of skilled manpower, the steady breaking of social and cultural barriers as well as the building of friendly bridges across the nation. It has also promoted higher values of national unity and development, rekindled interest in neglected but vital areas of national development like agriculture, and promoted leadership qualities in our youths. In these and other ways, the scheme constantly pricks the conscience of the nation to the right course of development, thereby keeping the hope alive for a better Nigeria.

 The regular invita tion of members of the Corps to participate in the conduct of such sensitive national assignments as Population Census, Elections, etc. and to provide material for the Technical Aid Corps (TAC), is not only an expression of faith in the ability of the scheme, but also an appreciation of its monumental achievements since its inception in 2008. The positive multiplier effects of these achievements on society are worthy of further examination, taking, for instance, the deployment of corps members (Ikemefula, 2008).

1.2  Statement Of The Problem

Nigerian universities and polytechnics are presently producing thousands of graduates every year. After graduation, most students when been call-up to serve, encounter problems when they reach their states of assignment. These problems are mentioned below:

  • They might end up being misled by people who are not conversant with the location of the camps.
  • Due to the difficulties in locating the orientation camp, may discourage the corps form serving his/her fathers land.
  • May enter dangerous places and may be robbed, sexually abused or even get killed.

·         Time wastage in searching and locating the appropriate orientation camp.

·         Wastage of money in finally locating the main orientation camp.

1.3  . Aims And Objectives

The aim of this research is to design and implement Computer Based NYSC Orientation Camp Traveling Guide that will assist new corp. members in reaching the youth service orientation camps safely. The system will provide the following functions

  • Provide a multimedia platform as well as interactive to users.
  • Provision of an online mapping platform for coppers to log on to in real time.
  • Provision of an online route mapping based on camp locations in different states of the country.
  • Provision of mobile platform of travelers.
  • It provide a querying option for user for contacts and important infrastructures / amenities for corps members

1.4      Significance Of The Study

Through the successful implementation of this research project, corps in Nigeria will be able to make it to their designative camps with ease. This will be made possible through the proposed Online NYSC Orientation Camp Traveling Guide System.

Countless lives will be spared the torments of suffering from one bus stop to another looking for how to make it to camps on time.

1.5     Scope Of The Study

The scope of this Project Research cover the design and implementation of a Computer Based NYSC Orientation Camp Route Decision Making System for members of the Nigerian Youth service Corp to use for verifying the location of orientation camps in any state he/she is been posted to.


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