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1.1 Background of Study
Rape is pandemic and women and children are still caught up in a cycle of human right violation since the first United Nations conference on women in Mexico, 1975 (Ward & Rumble, 2007). Estimate show that one out of three women born anywhere in the world has a chance of being raped, beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused in lifetime (Reuter, 2006).
The absence of strict functioning of criminal justices system encourages a culture of impurity associated with this abuse. In the western world that issue of rape is not left out but laws have been part in place to punish any individual guilty of the crime. The crime of rape is peculiar in the sub-Sahara.
In Darsfur, Sudan the united national has since accused the Janjaweed – Arab Militanmen – of abducting and gang, raping thousands of woman and girls (Akosoli, 2007).There are reports of American troops raping fellow female troops in Iraq (Moffeit & Herdy, 2004) .It is estimated that a third of all women, and girls in Sierra Leone were subjected to sexual violence in the country conflict of 1991 and 2002 (Amnesty International, 2007)
The Burmese Army also committed savage and rampant sexual violence on ethnic Chin woman with impunity (Burman Net News 2007) Entrenched attitude about women also mean that rape goes unpunished in many Arab countries for examples Saudi Arabia where Islamic law forbids women in appearing in the public with men who are not relative: king Abdullah sentenced a 19-year old girls rape victim 90 lashes for appearing in the public with an unrelated male (women, living under Muslim Laws (WLUML, 2007)
Saudi like Nigeria has strict gender segregation laws, and women are not allowed to mingle with unrelated men, and adultery is a punishable offence. Judges are also given wide powers to impose custodial sentence or corporal punishment. The country system of male guardianship severely limits the basic freedom of women, the right afforded in the 1979 Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women -EDAW. It can be said that the country Islamic Sharia law turns on international women’s right threaty that Riyadh signed in 2000. In such situation, the prevalence of a Patriachal ideology with stereotypes and the persistence of deep rooted cultural norms, customs and traditions discriminate against women thereby restricting marriage, devo ice, child custody, inheritance property ownership and decision –making in the family as well as choice of residence, education and jobs.
The child whose education been deprived and maltreated in terms child labour- is a work carried out by children which endanger the health and safety of the child. The child labour that is commonly seen in this area in hawking.
According to Oxford Advance learners Dictionary (2012) states hawking entails the carrying of wares for sale. It may be involve by calling around or by moving from door or door. The child grows into a teenager. Teenage hawking is not an entirely new phenomenon in Nigeria society. Everywhere you go, you find girls who should naturally be in school hawking eatable and non eatable e.g bread, drinks and broom. Hawking is one of the aspect of child labour that is commonly seen both, in rural and urban area of the north. In addition hawking is largely carried out in the morning for those who are not going to school and evening when they are either back from school. But the situation is however different in the urban area. Hawking goes on from morning till the evening.
At times hawking is traditionally and culturally acceptable as form of child rearing practice. Many parents mishandle the children because of their own experience. This shows that parents disciplinary practice are also as a result of their socialization process. It was found that most parents whose children are participating in street hawking may have been themselves street hawkers sometimes. Hawkers are abused in many ways, they are sexually, physically and abuser go away with their wares and money while some die in accidents but the researcher is interested in sexual abuse otherwise known as rape which is the unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman or girl without her consent or with her consent. If the consent is obtain by force or by false means of fraudulent representation as nature of the act it occurs when and adult or some bigger than a child uses his or her power or authority over a child or takes advantage of a child’s trust or respect to involve her in sexual activities (Ukaegbu, 2004/2008)
Sexual abuse can be the most irreparable and terrifying event in a girls life. The sexual act performed is often intended to humiliate or degrade her. If the girl refused to admit to their request, the abuser may in trust bottle, sharp stick iron or hand into the vagina or arms or threaten to kill her if she reports she may be compelled to swallow urine or perform fellatio with such force that she think she might suffocate in some cases, her terror may be overwhelming that she urinates or vomits, then if she escape without serious outward signs of injury, she may suffer vaginal tears, contact sexual transmitted infections such as HIV, gonorrhea, syphilis or may become pregnant. Rape can involve a wide range of sexual activities including exhibitionism, fundling genital masturbation, oral sex, and penetration by fingers, penis or any other dangerous objects. Poverty is the cause of hawking while sexual abuse or rape is caused by many factors cultural conflict, sex myths, inmate sexual drive, drugs, exposure to sexual modernity, ritual, indecent dressing and inadequate laws etc. Evolutionary psychology posits a continuity of sexual violent behaviour that can be traced to most distant ancestors and that can be located within the male genes.
The reason for girls allowing themselves to be abused are obedience and respect for adult, ignorance, material needs, while the methods used the abusers to gain compliance are kindness, buying of wares, manipulations, misrepresentation of truth, coercion, threat, material enticement and force (child abuse and neglect appcan advocacy series 1998). Then afterward, sexually exploited victim find it difficult to develop healthy affection relationship in later life. Apart from possessing sexual dysfunctions they tend to turn to sexual abusers when they enter adulthood. Nigeria adult society build a lot of mysteries around sex matters thus making it difficult for rape victim not to share their experiences with their parents or guardian for the fear of being flogged or stigma. (Child abuse and neglect appcan advocacy series 1986).
All over Nigeria, stories of rape abound. Recently in Kaduna incident of rape was becoming alarming and the victims are the underage. Adding that Public Police Relation Officer (PPRO) Assistant Superintended Police (ASP) Aliyu Usman said during his interview with Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) news agency of Nigeria on 19th August 2016 said some of the challenged police faces on rape cases during investigation was the attitude of victims and their parents as some of them hold back for fear of stigmatization and some do not report the case due to some reasons. Few example of rape cases, 17 years old female student brutally raped by 4 soldiers in Kajuru Kaduna North, also a man of 43-years raped his own child of 15years and made her pregnant. A young man raped a girl of 11 years for ritual money making as he confessed that Mallam gave him charm in Maiduguri that if he has sex with a virgin that he will become rich.
The simple mean will used to analyse the finding obtain from the field of the study for proper understanding.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Rape like a cankerworm seems to be thriving and deepening its root in Nigeria society. The frightening reports are frequently in the national dailies cutting across all age brackets involving security personnel, close associates and even relation are caught in the crime.
The menace of rape occurrence in Kaduna is certainly worrisome to the society including academic, legal religions, medical and political circles of the day. Report shows that the incident of rape is in all the local governments in Kaduna and the incidence that were reported, among teenage hawkers were at the higher statistics leading to the complications such as stigmatization, trauma, bleeding, pregnancy and infection even death, this made the Kaduna State House of Assembly on Wednesday June 26th 2016 to adopt a motion to enact a law prescribing life imprisonment for rapist and also further said that section 282 and 285 of the penal code were not adequate to deal with such cases, (Daily Trust, 2016)
1.3 Justification of Study
To find solution since rape had become rampant inspite of the present religions boom, and existing law in the country.
1.4 Broad Objective
To determined incidence of rape among teenage hawkers in Kawo Kaduna North.
1.5 Specific Objective
The main purpose is to find out if there has been any decisive effort geared toward check mating the incident of the rape.
- To determine the factors responsible for upsurge of crime of rape.
- To assess the effect of rape on the victims.
- To ascertain the effectiveness of law regarding this crime.
- To evaluates the responses of social and civil groups in curbing the crime.
- To ascertain the strategies to control rape.
1.6 Research Question
o What are factors that determines the incidence of rape?
o Are there any effects of rape on the victims?
o Are perpetrators punished by the law?
o What could be the response of social and civil groups?
o What means could rape be controlled?
1.7 Significance of Study
This research work has both theoretical and practical significance.
- The findings of this research will be useful to nurses, sociologists, psychologist, teachers, social workers, parents and etc, who are concerned with the primary care and development of children to help in the modifying the attitude of the public towards victimization.
- This study will also create perception attitude, views and opinions of the public towards the concept of sexual abuses.
- It will serve as a useful contribution towards the current body of knowledge especially to the social sciences discipline that deals with human behaviour.
- It will enhance the knowledge of the government towards making review and amending of laws to prevent and curtailed the incidence of rape.
- Finally, it will acquaint the government on some of the social vices that is associated with modernity.
- It will bring a challenge of proper implementation of law regarding rape.
1.8 Limitation (Scope) of Study
The study is concern on the incidence of rape among teenage hawkers in Kawo, Kaduna North. It includes measures to curb it and the place of law in this crime.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
For the purpose of clear understanding of the work on this research, definition of the key terms in this research is necessary
Child abuse – the crime of harming a child in a physical, sexual or emotional way –
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