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Literary works are imaginative or creative writing which serve as medium of communication. It can be piece of writing, written material, that are the works of a writer, anything expressed in letters of alphabet especially when considered from the point of view of style and effect (Havelock 15).
Literary works could be fictional or a depiction real life situation literary often meant to project the rural and urban life of people. Literary works can be informs of novels, poetry and plays. The use of literary works in order to make critique of how to promote Hiv Awareness in the reference to a work of art Hope Harvesters. The writer is an artist. It is an intellectual activity involving skills which enable us to determine among written works, the grain from the chaff so as to make reasoned judgment upon literary works based on some well defined criteria according to Ahmed .It is an exercise in critical judgment which are to a large extent, highly subjective relying on the personal responses of the critic as a reader (65)
T.A Richards sees criticism as part of activity in literary works as the endeavor to discriminate between experiences and to evaluate them (64).
The world is in great danger as captured in the play Hope Harvesters there has never been a time in history that the world has faced the danger of faces today, the international community is watching as HIV/AIDS pandemic tightens its grip on the world especially in Africa.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the resultant Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) remain foremost global health and development challenges. The numbers of people living with HIV worldwide has continued to grow reaching an estimated 33.4 million in 2008 (UNADS, 2009). Globally it is estimated that 2.7 million AIDS related deaths occurred in 2008.
HIV/AIDS was discovered in about 1981 and the first case in Nigeria was discovered in 1986 in a 13year old girl, since then the increasing trend of transmission and numerous deaths have been attributed to the ravaging disease. The existence of HIV/AIDS did not help matters it affected families, states, countries and the global society in a large. The reality has become true that it is a development and not only a health problem, hence the multi sectoral spread and mitigated of the impact of the disease.
HIV/AIDS has been found to attract mostly youths and woman in the reproductive and productive age group day in, day out (William, 14). Many of the youths has gone for untimely deaths, this notwithstanding, the challenge posed by HIV remains phenomenal; for every 2 new persons place on anti-retroviral 5 new individuals get infected.
Despite significant gains achieved through improved access to ARVS the epidemic in sub-Saharan African continues to outpace the response. To reverse this trend, there is a need to elevate the priority given to HIV prevention strategies with actual needs. This will contribute to greater success in preventing new HIV. Infections which is critical to active Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6 “to halt and reverse the spread of HIV by 2015” with potential to contribute to the achievement of other MDGs and other national development goals.
Nigeria HIV prevalence is estimated at 3.6% based on a general population survey (Emoh, 131). The HIV prevalence among pregnant woman (antenatal care sentinel survey) was 4.6% (Emoh, 134) which indicate an improvement from 5.8% in 2001. Current estimate of people with HIV in Nigeria is 2.98 million implying that over 95% Nigerians are infected.
This scenario thus underscores the need for laying premium on HIV prevention efforts, while concomitantly addressing the challenges of treatment needs for those infected and mitigating other impact of infection has been rightly emphasized by the country’s National policy thrust as reflected in the National policy thrusts as reflected in the revised National HIV/AIDS policy (Oct. 2009) the National strategic frame work (2010-2015) (NSF 11) and the National strategic plan(2010-2015).Thus the need to operationalized this priority placed on HIV prevention in these research work. Through the provision of a National guide on HIV prevention programming in order to ensure a co-ordinated, well resourced effective and efficient response as part of awareness on the danger of HIV.
The sad frustration is that there is no vaccine for its cure. Everyone of us must discover and play a vital positive role that will help to stop the spread of the infection as the world continue to conduct research into a vaccine that would one day help to cure the infections as T.S Eliot captures our feeling when he wrote “The wasteland”. “I had not thought death had undone so many”, but he wrote “But at my back is cold blast and chuckle spread from ear to ear”.
The National emphasis on pracentions in the context of a comprehensive and multi-sectoral HIV and AIDS response is in line with the country’s commitment to a number of international agreements and policy frame works such as the African Unions 2006 Abuja call for Accelerated Action and the 2006 United Nations political declaration HIV/AIDS, aimed at achieving the goal of universal access to comprehensive HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. (21).
In addition, the evidence base for the response has expanded through national surveys which include the National HIV/AIDS and reproductive health (Narhs 76), integrated Biological and Behavioural surveillance survey (Ibbss 101), Nigeria demographic and health survey (DHS 2008). HIV/AIDS sustainability study (HAPSAT 2009) modes of transmission study (Mot, 116) data analysis and triangulation for evaluation (DATE, 2010) and social dimensions of HIV and AIDS prevention; HIV/AIDS related risks behaviours and testing and counseling in Nigeria (REACH; In him report, April 2010) the evidence provided by these recent studies are critical to shaping the future of prevention interventions and awareness in the country.
1:2 Statement of the Problem
HIV/AIDS which is regarded as “A weapon of mass destruction” (Andrew 16), is very much consider more deadly than the first world war nuclear and bio chemical bomb explosion which occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki where hundreds and thousands of people died. The problem of the research is the spread of HIV Aids and stigmatization of Aids victims and HIV is considered weapon of mass destruction in the bodies of infected men and women in their millions.
The problem remains on the fact that, this deadly virus has turn love into a terrible Spector and sex into a death gift and sentences. It is for this reason the secretary General of United Nations has declared “The war on AIDS”.
1:3 Purpose of the Study
Globally we are now existing in the world of security problem where AIDS is now the problem where AIDS is now the problem and had taken away, not just the present generations but the future generation as well. This fatal disease has stretched its tentacle into every nation and into every tribe. The facts are an eye sore… flesh… dust to dust.
The purpose of this study is to bring to the fore diverse means of making people aware of the negative impact of the disease. This by talking about sex education, financial support and showing love to those affected. The study of this nature will contribute in the HIV/AIDS campaign awareness globally.
1.4 Aims and Objectives
The study is set out to achieve the following objectives.
a. To find ways of promoting HIV/AIDS awareness in the societies.
b. To find out lasting solution on the prevention of contracting HIV in the societies.
c. To identify ways of curbing spread of HIV/AIDS in the whole world.
1.5 Research Question
1. What are the effects of HIV/AIDS globally?
2. What are the roles played by international organization to prevent AIDS?
3. What are the measures of curbing HIV/AIDS prevalence in our community?
1.6 Scope and Delimitation
The topic under research is a global issue because it affects every community and tribe. It is a grip on the world; especially in Africa. The work uses the play Hope Harvester as a major text of reference, bringing out the effect of HIV/AIDS has captured by Victor Dugga.
1.7 Significance of the Study
HIV/AIDS is as a virus that has taken many lives worldwide. The study is significance because it will enlighten the populace on the effect of an danger of the virus. The study is also significant because it will help reduce issues of stigmatization of AIDS victims.
The researcher made textual analysis of a play in relation to HIV/AIDS and other relevant materials. Other methods employ by the researcher for data collection was oral interview, observation and interaction with AIDs victims which contributed to the development of this research work.
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