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Title page                                                                                                  i

Approval page                                                                                          ii

Declaration                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                 iv

Acknowledgment                                                                                               v

Table of contents                                                                                     vi

Abstract                                                                                                     viii


Background of the study                                                                         1

Statement of the problem                                                                        3

Purpose of the study                                                                               3

Significance of the study                                                                         4

Research question                                                                                   4

Scope of the study                                                                                   5


The techniques for maintaining technical tools and

equipments in secondary school.                                                          10

The instructional techniques for teaching students

the knowledge of technical tools and equipments.                              18

The techniques for imposing safety rules and regulation on

the use of workshop tools and equipments in secondary school                20

Summary                                                                                                   24


Research Design                                                                                     25

Area of the study                                                                                               25

Population                                                                                                 25

Instrument for data collection                                                                  26

Validation of the instrument                                                                              26

Reliability of the instrument                                                                     27

Method of data collection                                                                        27

Method of data analysis                                                                          27


Research Question 1                                                                               29

Research question 2                                                                               30

Research question 3                                                                               31


Introduction                                                                                               33

Restatement of problem                                                                          33

Summary of the procedure                                                                     34

Discussion of findings based on research question                                      35

Implications of the findings                                                                     37

Recommendations                                                                                   37

Suggestion for further study                                                                             38

Limitations of the study                                                                                     38

Conclusion                                                                                                         39

References                                                                                                         40

Appendix                                                                                                   41


The study sought to assess techniques for proper maintenance of technical tools in secondary schools in Kaduna north local government area of Kaduna state. The specific purposes of the study were to identify the methods used in the maintenance of technical tools, the care and servicing procedure personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipments and facilities in satisfactory operation condition and the need for regular or routine action taken on equipment in order to prevent its breakdown. Three research questions were design and used to guide this study. The population of the study is 48 since the population was manageable there was no need for sampling. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study is Kaduna North, LGA. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coeffiecient was used to calculate the reliability coefficient. Mean statistics was employed to analyse the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that the school lack trained teachers in the field of technical education, No workshops and seminars for both staff and students, Schools have no standard and sufficient tools and equipment, Some school do not include safety rules and regulations in the school programme among others. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include that Government and school administrators should provide enough funds for procurement and maintenance of tools and equipment, Maintenance and management should be offered as a  course of study in the schools, School administrators should ensure proper and adequate storage facilities in the schools, Seminars and workshops should be organized for teachers on the need for proper maintenance of tools and equipment among others.



Background of the study

One of the major responsibilities of the technical staff is to keep tools and equipment in an excellent working condition at all times. This is because it is only when tools and equipment are continuously maintained that a complete and sound educational programme may be offered.

Olaitan, Igbo, Ekong, Nwachukwu & Onymachi (1999) referred to maintenance as taking specific approved steps and precaution to care for a piece of equipment, machinery or facility and ensure that if attains specific maximum functional shelf-life. Monks (as citied in Okala,2000) see maintenance as any activity designed to keep resources in good working condition or restore them to operating status. Also, Obi (cited in Mohammed and Abbas, 2001), defined maintenance as the totality of measures employed to ensure that a given piece of capital assets, equipment or infrastructure is kept in good operational order until it attains its maximum life span. It is imperative to reduce from this definition that tools and equipment not properly maintained will develop quick wear and in no too distant time, breakdown without attainting economic life span.

When technical tools and equipment are given consistent attention they last longer than when they are not. For any workshop equipment to function effectively there is need for adequate management and maintenance all the time. In another vein for any school to impact practical and skills to the students effectively and efficiently, there is need to have well organized maintenance and procedure programme included in the curriculum. Only by this shall we be able to cater for the continuous functioning of technical equipment in our secondary schools. It is the sole aim of the federal government that the country should be technologically oriented, that is why a practical and vocational form of curriculum was made available with the introduction of 6-3-3-4 system of education (National policy on education 1981). Maintenance holds a department of its own and also form greater part of management in any organization. Managing of maintenance is a very essential service because it ensures continuity and maximum use of any equipment. Tools and equipment are the integral part of workshop without which no skills could be successfully displayed, acquired or learnt.

Thorndike in Goshwe and Bwala (1995) in his theories of learning brought laws of exercise and repetition, which state, that “the more times a stimulus (i.e induced response) is repeated, the longer it will be retained. “This means that all things being equal exercise strengthens the bond between situation and response. However, it has been observed by researchers that cases of broken down technical tools and equipment is increasing day after day in secondary schools today, aside from broken tools and equipment there are cases where tools and equipment are stolen as well as vandalization of these technical tools and equipment which is common in most secondary school in Kaduna north local government areas of Kaduna state. Procter and Higgings in Abdullahi (2002) indicated that inadequacy in the techniques for the maintenance of technical tools and equipment has also contributed a great deal to the lack of proper maintenance of these tools and equipments. Mean while, if the available technical tools and equipments are properly maintained they it will last longer as stated by Walton (1981).

Statement of the problem

It has been observed by researchers that the rate of broken down technical tools and equipments is very high and alarming in secondary school today. Apart from broken down tools and equipments there are equally cases of stolen tools and equipments as well as Vandalization in most of the school in Kaduna north local government area, the few which are found available are rusted due to lack of proper maintenance.

Purpose of the study

The general purpose of the study is to determine the techniques for proper maintenance of technical tools and equipments in secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Government Area of the state. Specifically the study will determine:-

1.   The methods used in the maintenance of technical tools

2.   The care and servicing procedure given by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipments and facilities in satisfactory operation condition.

3.   The rues and regulations needed for routine action on equipment in order to prevent its failure.

Significance of the study

The findings of this research will provide technicians with techniques for proper maintenance of technical tools in secondary school in Kaduna state by motivating both the students and technicians. It will also be of great importance to students, if the student were motivated they will be their brother keeper’s in keeping well these tools. The knowledge of maintenance of technical tools will help the ministry of education to effectively plan for the education of the state.

Research question

The study is guided by the following questions

1.   What is the method used in maintenance of technical tools?

2.   What are the care and servicing given by the personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment and facilities in satisfactory operational?

3.   What are the rules and regulations needed for routine action on equipment in order to prevent its failure?

Scope of the study

The study will determine the techniques for proper maintenance of technical tools and equipments in secondary school in Kaduna north local government area.

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