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Background of study
Home economics is the education for living. It is the study of all that relate to home and family. It is the area of study that provides the necessary knowledge guiding and assisting human being to be able to attain a more self reliance and fulfilled life. Home economics deals with all aspects of family living, drawing knowledge from many disciplines such as Biology, Physics, Social Science, Humanities and Arts, and unifying the knowledge drawn to teach people how to do the followings: Determine the needs of individuals and families and become responsible and effective members of family and community through effective home making and gainful employment (Anyakoha, 1997). Ugoezie (1990) is of the view that home economics is a skill-oriented subject that can equip an individual with the basic skill and knowledge that will help one to be self-employed and so contribute effectively to the socio-economic development of the family and the society.
Eze (2001) pointed out that Home Economics is capable of preparing youths and adults for entry into various areas Home Economics occupations. This shows that as a vocational subject Home Economics contributes to manpower development by equipping individuals with reliable occupational skills, which lead to self-reliance. Home Economics can also help individuals (male and female) acquire basic skills needed for gainful employment and family living. It could also be known that Home Economics as a field of study does not exclude gender, age or any other classification (Eze, 2001). Home Economics is a very important subject in the University Curriculum. The programme has many career opportunities, for the University graduates. It also prepares individual for happy family life. Both male and female students study the subject at the University. In practice, however, Home Economics is one of the courses which attract the lowest enrolment of male students both at the university and other tertiary institutions. Akuzuilo (1993), Azikiwe (1990) and Olaitan (1986) are of the view that Home Economics education is one of the courses which attract lowest enrolment of male students in secondary and tertiary levels of education. Besides, the low enrolment pattern, Home Economics education show wide disparity between male and female students in favour of females. Both low enrolment and gender disparity in enrolment have been attributed to wrong awareness (perception) of the meaning and the roles of Home Economists (Olaitan, 1986). It is therefore of paramount importance to investigate the factors/reasons which male students from studying Home Economics at the University of Ilorin and students’ view on the roles of Home Economics programme on graduation from the University. The low male students’ enrolment of Home Economics in the University of Ilorin calls for much concern. This could be due to certain problems relating to the teaching/learning of the subject. Some likely causes include; some parents do not encourage their children to study Home Economics. Lack of equipment and facilities for practicals (Imonikebe, 1993). One of the reasons why students do not like to study Home Economics may be due to its expensive nature. Olaitan and Agusiobo (1981), observes that parents seem to underrate Home Economics and object to its inclusion in the school’s curriculum. Poor funding by the government was seen as a problem affecting Home Economics, it doesn’t suit the male folks and other factors which may affect male students enrollment. (Anodiogbu, 1980). Uwadie (1990) stated that most complaints about teaching of Home Economics are mostly shortage of teachers, equipment and accommodation and lack of dedication on the part of teachers of Home Economics. Home Economics is perceived as a female domain into which males need not venture (Uwadie, 1993). Eze (2001) found the following as the factors that militate against male students in the study of Home Economics; that there are differential socialization patterns of boys and girls at early stage of life; he perceived irrelevance of Home Economics for boys; absence of career education, feminine…. of Home Economics as a course of study. Anyakoha (1992) pointed out that the potential of an educational system is directly related to the qualification of the teacher. The more qualified and well-trained teachers are, the easier it is curriculum to be executed and the better achievement by the student. The need for the students to be taken for excursion to various Home Economics establishment such as in clothing and textiles, Home management, Food and Nutrition establishments was recommended by Ovute, (2001). This could motivate students to study Home Economics. The Federal Government should be more seriously involved in the funding of Home Economics courses in order to overcome the problems of lack of finance (Ode, 1998). Teaching people about the importance of Home economics is very necessary. There should be enlightenment campaigns through seminars and mass media about the importance of Home Economics and the career opportunities that subject provides. Eze (2001) recommended that parents should encourage their sons and daughters to develop interest and select Home Economics as a subject of study in schools; that there should be no mark sex discrimination in the activities and games which boys and girls are allowed to participate at home: that parents should encourage their sons to choose Home Economics and related discipline; that careers in Home Economics are attractive and highly remunerated; that Home Economics teachers should not only teach their subject but also guidance counsellors to their students especially boys; that there should be emphasis on the provision of teaching facilities and career education that will help to attract boys and girls to study Home Economics. Ovule (2002) recommended the excursion or field trips as method of teaching Home Economics in all levels of education.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Nigeria today is faced with serious economics and social problems that include unemployment increase in crime, hunger, child trafficking, child abuse etc. Such a country needs functional education that will provide people with source of livelihood of which home economics is one; education that will definitely bring both self and national development. In utmost dismay, one hardly sees males in home economics programmes at all levels. Females are the sex that always forms the class size. Anyakoha (1997) expressed that the number of males offering home economics in almost all the levels of education in Nigeria is not encouraging. For instance, in the Federal College of Education (Tech), Umunze, no male student has been graduated from the department since its inception (Statistics from the Department of Home Economics, 2013). Many young males are often without skills and therefore go unemployed. Observably too, the rate of divorce cases instituted by wives against their husbands suggest that their husbands have challenges in the area of home management. Furthermore, there is dearth of males in home economics related vocations and jobs including the teaching profession. All these are consequences of their not being enrolled and therefore not trained in the area of home economics. Based on the above problems, the researcher wants to find out the causes of poor enrolment of male studentsin home economics programmes, the effects and strategies for correction.
The general purpose of this study is to find out the poor enrolment of male studentsin home economics programmes in Nigeria and strategies for correction. Specifically, the study will find out:
1. To determine the causes of poor enrollment of male students in Home economics programmes in Nigeria.
2. Effects of poor enrolment of male students in Home economics programmes in Nigeria.
3. Strategies for correcting the anomaly.
1. What is the causes of poor enrollment of male students in Home economics programmes in Nigeria?.
2. What is effects of poor enrolment of male students in Home economics programmes in Nigeria?.
3. What are the strategies for correcting the anomaly?.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings and recommendation of this study will be of tremendous benefit to home economics curriculum planners to outline, efficient strategies for effective teaching of home economics in all levels of education in Nigeria. The findings will be beneficial to parents, in that it will make them to change their attitude towards the study of Home economics by their male children.
In the present dispensation where youth unemployment is at its peak, the findings of this study will encourage males to study home economics in tertiary institutions for self-employment which will equally reduce crime rate in the society.
Finally, the findings of this study, if adhered to, will go a long way to correct the misconception of seeing Home economics as women subject.
SCOPE OF STUDY
The study will be aim at studying the causes of poor enrolment of male students into home economics in Nigeria tertiary institutions with special reference to university of Illorin.
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