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1.1 Background of the Study
Career selection is one of many important
choices students make in determining future plans. This decision will impact
them throughout their lives because; the essence of who the student is revolves
around what the student wants to do with their life-long work. Super, Savicks,
and Super (1996) maintains that initial career decision-making is a cultural
developmental task that students are expected to have accomplished by the end
of their high school year. Career selection has become a complex science with
the advent of information technology, the emergence of post industrial
revolution and job competition. At secondary school level, a student is expected
to have knowledge of what he or she intends to do in the future, this in turn
guides the choice of subjects the West African Certificate (WACE).
This decision – making is very important and students must be allowed to choose their careers because it will create awareness in the students mind for the challenges ahead (Joans, 1986). The younger generation is the future of any society. Therefore, their career choices should help them develop the knowledge, skills and attitude needed to successfully examine their lives, while exploring and evaluating a wide range of career options to attain goals in the future. Ini Local Government Area came into existence in September 23, 1991. Ini people are known for their rich cultural heritage which bears strict similarities with those of other Ibibio communities in the state. They are predominantly farmers who cultivate their products in commercial quantities. Their specialization in mat making has introduced them into trading, which not only takes them to the width and breath of Akwa Ibom but beyond causing them to interact with people from other countries. In this modern and computer age, Ini people have adjusted to other occupations like nursing, teaching, engineering etc. This has given rise to multiple careers and choices from which the students in the Local Government can make. Participation in activities at home, school, community, gives room for interaction among the students and this opens their minds to possibilities, placing factors or determinants to their choices of career. These factors guides them to choose careers they can excel in, because in the future, a career choice a student had made must be able to sustain him or her through times of financial, emotional family, political and educational needs etc. Clearly, career choice is purposeful or necessary and must be carefully done to avoid regrets. Students forced into any career find it difficult to embrace and adjust to the challenges that come, thereby leaving the student at a choice of being stagnant or retreating as the case may be.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Today, one does not only need to make due
career planning but also exhaustive career research before making a career
choice so as adjust with the evolving socio economic conditions, (Wattles, 2009).
Hewitt (2010), suggested that most people are affected by career that their
parent favors, others flows with the career that their educational choice have
opened for them, some choose to follow their passion regardless of how much or
little it will make them, while others choose the career that gives high
income. Mcquaid and Bond (2003) cited that student’s perception of being
suitable for a particular job also has been found to be affected by a number of
factors which include ethnic background, years in school, and level of
achievement. However, students are known by a combination of personal
abilities, personality type and other factors (Okafor 2012). Hence, factors
affecting career choice can either by intrinsic or extrinsic or both. Student’s
perception of being suitable for a particular job also has been found to be
affected by a number of factors. For instance, Parental support and
encouragement are important factors that have been found to affect career
choice. Children may choose what their parents desire simply to please them
(Taylor et al; 2004). Okafor (2012) cited that generally, the choice of a
career is affected by parents, friends, and variation of one population to
another. He also claimed that, Parents education and occupational background
may affect students’ career choice because some students may contemplate on
whether to continue their parent’s occupation or not. What the students see in
televisions also may affect their career choice. Some career demand that you
have the personality to match the qualities of the occupation. However, when
these students graduate from the school, some of them enter into occupations
that are totally different from the one they had chosen and trained for. For
these reasons the necessities of a guidance counselor in schools cannot be over
emphasized. Career choice has become a complex science with the advent of information
technology, the emergence of post industrial revolution and job competition. It
was a common practice in the old days to find feudalism converting it into a
family affair where the son of a blacksmith was destined to become a blacksmith
and a feudal was born a leader. Industrialization and post industrialization
has made it possible for a common person to be richer as long as she or he has
due skills and knowledge. Today, one does not only need to make due career
planning but also exhaustive career research before making a career choice so
as to adjust with the evolving socio-economic conditions (Wattles, 2009).
This also discourages the student and puts him or her in a position of not wanting to try anything new or different in a case where the student cannot excel to maximum expectation. Indeed, career choice is for development and the choice of a career must satisfy the expectations of the student(s) to attain higher heights as he or she strives to succeed. This work is hinged on the determinants of career choice among secondary school students in Ini Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the factor affecting career choice. In achieving this, the researcher is poised to;
a. Investigate environmental factors that affect career choice among students.
b. Examine opportunity factors that affect career choice among students.
c. Investigate personality factors that affect career choice among students.
1.4 Study Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses guided the study.
There is no significant difference in environmental factors affecting career choice among government and private secondary school students.
There is no significant difference in opportunity factors affecting career choice amonggovernment and private secondary school students.
There is no significant difference in personality factors affecting career choice betweengovernment and private secondary school.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study proves to be important as it highlights the several factors responsible for the career choice which students make. It goes further, to x-ray the implication of those choices on the chosen career of these students. This study is a contribution to numerous academic literatures and a partial requirement for the award of B.sc(ED).
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study encapsulates relevant and related literatures on career choice. It sufficiently examines the students which the researcher feels the study will benefit the most. The study however, is limited by space. This is because only one local government was taken into consideration in this study, as such the study is open for further researches. Time and finance also was a limitation as regards, meeting the respondents and eliciting information from them.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Career: an occupation undertaken for a significant period of a person's life and with opportunities for progress.
Choice: An act of choosing between two or more possibilities.
Effect: a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
1.8 Organization of Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
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